Additional Reading

Adrogue HJ, Gennari FJ, Galla JH, Madias NE. Assessing acid- base disorders. Kidney Int. 2009;76:1239-1247.

Fodale V, La Monica E. Propofol infusion syndrome: an overview of a perplexing disease. Drug Saf. 2008;31:293-303.

Gabow PA, Kaehny WD, Fennessey PV, Goodman SI, Gross PA, Schrier RW. Diagnostic importance of an increased serum anion gap. N Engl J Med. 1980;303:854-858.

Herrington WG, Levy JB. Metformin: effective and safe in renal disease? Int Urol Nephrol. 2008;40:411-417.

Kraut JA, Madias NE. Serum anion gap: its uses and limitations in clinical medicine. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007; 2:162-174.

Kraut JA, Madias NE. Metabolic acidosis: pathophysiology diagnosis and management. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010; 6:274-285.

Han KH. Mechanisms of the effects of acidosis and hypokalemia on renal ammonia metabolism. Electrolyte Blood Press. 2011;9:45-48.

Oh MS, Carroll HJ. The anion gap. N Engl J Med. 1977;297: 814-817.

Shaw JS, Wilmot RL, Kilpatrick ES. Establishing pragmatic estimated GFR thresholds to guide metformin prescribing. DiabetMed. 2007;24:1160-1163.

Vernon C, Letourneau JL. Lactic acidosis: recognition, kinetics and associated prognosis. Crit Care Clin. 2010;26: 255-283.

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