Entrepreneurship and Exporting

The third section consists of three chapters that deal with issues of exporting and entrepreneurship among firms in India.

Rapidly internationalizing firms are the focus of“Emerging-Market Born Globals: The Influence of Product-Related Factors on Internationalization Mode in the Indian Apparel Industry” (Chap. 9), by S. Raghunath and Krishna Kumar Balaraman. Building on the knowledge-based internationalization process perspective, Raghunath and Balaraman find that the seven case firms in the study have maintained their use of low-commitment entry modes (e.g., producing in India and exporting), and identify that the nature of the firms’ products are related to the choice of entry mode and the nature (and extent) of their acquisition of knowledge pertaining to their international customers.

Pavan Soni also uses a qualitative approach, studying innovation among entrepreneurs that operate in the informal economy, which is generally associated with low pay, weak social protection, exploitation, and few opportunities for moving out of poverty. Informal economies play important roles in emerging markets, and India is widely viewed as having the world’s largest informal economy. In “Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Informal Economy: Insights from the Ground Zero” (Chap. 10), Soni aims to develop a deeper understanding of why these entrepreneurs have opted to work within the informal economy, the processes by which they innovate in their businesses, and the manner in which they interact with the formal economy.

In Chap. 11, Satyanarayana Rentala, Byram Anand, and Majid Shaban focus on the export performance, considering larger firms in two key knowledge- and technology-intensive Indian industries. Their study, entitled “Determinants of Export Performance: An Empirical Analysis of the Indian Pharmaceutical and Automobile Industries”, analyzes the determinants of export sales, providing deep insights into the international activities undertaken by firms in two industries that generate considerable export income for India.

 
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