The USG and some other Allies seriously considered and implemented at least five transitional justice options for addressing Japanese suspected of committing lesser atrocities: (1) prosecution in U.S. military tribunals, (2) appeal in a U.S. civilian court, (3) prosecution in military courts established by other states, (4) de facto conditional amnesty, and (5) lustration. Those Japanese whom the USG and its allies decided to hold accountable were prosecuted through unilateral, ad hoc Allied military tribunals (options 1 and 3). Some of those cases were (unsuccessfully) appealed to the USG’s permanent domestic federal judiciary, including the U.S. Supreme Court (option 2). Many of these and other Japanese Classes B and C war criminals also were the targets of lustration (option 5). Others whom the USG did not hold accountable, including several thousand Japanese involved in medical experimentation, were effectively provided de facto conditional amnesty (option 4) because the USG presumably would have revoked immunity had they not cooperated.

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