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Foreword

1. Chris Woods, "Ten Years Since First Deadly Drone Strike, Industry Gathers in London," The Bureau of Investigative Journalism, November 21, 2011.

Chapter 1

  • 1. Bart Elias, Pilotless Drones: Background and Considerations for Congress Regarding Unmanned Aircraft Operations in the National Airspace System, US Congressional Research Service, 2012.
  • 2. Robert Johnson, "FAA: Look for 30,000 Drones to Fill American Skies by the End of the Decade," Business Insider, February 8, 2012.
  • 3. Nick Wingfield, "New FAA Report Tallies Drone Sightings, Highlighting Safety Issues," New York Times, November 26, 2014.
  • 4. Miranda Green, "On the Home Front, Drones Are Quickly Shot Down by States," Daily Beast, March 9, 2013.
  • 5. Chris Anderson, "Relatively Cheap Drones with Advanced Sensors and Imaging Capabilities Are Giving Farmers New Ways to Increase Yields and Reduce Crop Damage," Technology Review, available at http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/526491/ agricultural-drones/.
  • 6. "GoPro Inc's Consumer Drones Could Help Its Stock Take Off," NASDAQ December 2, 2014, available at http://tealgroup. com/index.php/about-teal-group-corporation/media / item/ gopro-inc-s-consumer-drones-could-help-its-stock-take-off.
  • 7. Ben Popper, "The Drone You Should Buy Right Now," The Verge, July 31, 2014.
  • 8. Brian Merchant, "The Best Drones Money Can Buy," Vice, January 13, 2014.
  • 9. Abby Ohlheiser, "Pope Francis Has a Drone of His Very Own," Washington Post, April 30, 2015.
  • 10. David Swindell, Kevin Desouza, and Sabrina PK Glimcher, "Drones and the 'Wild West' of Regulatory Experimentation," Brookings Institution, 17 August 2015.
  • 11. Glennon Harrison, Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Manufacturing Trends, Congressional Research Service, January 2013, 2.
  • 12. Teal Group, World UAV Systems 2012.
  • 13. "Remarks by the President at the National Defense University," May 23, 2013, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/ 2013/05/23/remarks-president-national-defense-university.
  • 14. Zachary Keck, "Russia's Coming Combat Drones," The Diplomat, June 24, 2014.
  • 15. Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap: FY2013-2038, page 3, US Department of Defense, 14-S-0553.

Chapter 2

  • 1. Kelsey Atherton, "Flying Robots 101: Everything You Need to Know about Drones," Popular Science, March 7, 2013.
  • 2. Canadian safety regulations, available at http://wwwapps.tc.gc. ca/Saf-Sec-Sur/ 2/NPA-APM / doc.aspx?id=10293.
  • 3. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2005-2030, United States Department of Defense, 2005, 1.
  • 4. Joseph Angelo, Robotics: A Reference Guide to the New Technology, 147.
  • 5. Scientific American, March 1849.
  • 6. Chris Cole, "Rise of the Reapers: A Brief History of Drones," available at http://dronewars.net/2014/10/06/rise-of-the-reapers-a-brief- history-of-drones/.
  • 7. Jefferson Morley, "Israel's Drone Dominance," Salon, May 15, 2012.
  • 8. "Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles," December 8, 1987.
  • 9. Author's correspondence with retired US Air Force officer Colonel Kurt Klingenberger, January 16, 2015.
  • 10. Michael Hastings, "The Rise of the Killer Drones: How America Goes to War in Secret," Rolling Stone, April 16, 2012.
  • 11. Data from the NAF.
  • 12. Alice Ross, "Civilian Drone Deaths Triple in Afghanistan, UN Agency Finds," BIJ, February 8, 2014.
  • 13. Lynn Davis, Michael McNerney, James Chow, Thomas Hamilton, Sarah Harting, and Dan Byman, Armed and Dangerous: UAVs and U.S. Security (Rand Corporation, 2014), 9.
  • 14. Nonproliferation: Agencies Could Improve Information Sharing and End-Use Monitoring on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Exports. United States Government Accountability Office, July 2012.
  • 15. Stephen Trimble, "Missed Targets Prompt US Marine Corps to Arm Unmanned Shadows," FlightGlobal, January 12, 2012.
  • 16. L. Davis, M. McNerney, J. Chow, T. Hamilton, S. Harting, and D. Byman. "Armed and Dangerous," RAND Corporation, 2014.
  • 17. Michael Horowitz and Matthew Fuhrmann, Droning On, unpublished manuscript.
  • 18. General Accountability Office, Nonproliferation: Agencies Could Improve Information Sharing and End-Use Monitoring on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Exports, July 2012, available at http://www.gao.gov/ assets/600/593131.pdf.
  • 19. Chris Cole, "Israel and the Drone Wars," available at dronewarsuk. files.wordpress.com/2014/01/israel-and-the-drone-wars.pdf.
  • 20. Amira Haas, "Clearing the Fog on Israeli Drone Use in Gaza," Haaretz, March 1, 2014.
  • 21. "Did an Israeli Drone Strike Militants in Egypt?" Al Monitor, August 5, 2014.
  • 22. "UK Drone Strike Stats," available at http://dronewars.net/uk- drone-strike-list-2/.
  • 23. Phil Stewart and Yara Bayoumy, "As Easy Targets Thin, Syria Air Strikes by US Allies Plunge," Reuters, December 17, 2014.
  • 24. Eric Schmitt "Obstacles Limit Targets and Pace of Strikes on ISIS," New York Times, November 9, 2014.
  • 25. Sarah Kreps, "Obama's Report Card on Drone Policy Reform," The Hill, May 19, 2014.
  • 26. Scott Shane, "Debate Aside, Number of Drone Strikes Drops Sharply," New York Times, May 21, 2013.
  • 27. Micah Zenko, "America Just Launched Its 500th Drone Strike," The Atlantic, November 21, 2014.
  • 28. Micah Zenko, "US Transparency and the Truth of Targeted Killings," CFR.org, September 5, 2014.
  • 29. The BIJ does not report militant numbers but rather total and civilian numbers. If one does not take into account unknown
  • (which BIJ does not report), then we might infer that total fatalities - civilian = militant.
  • 30. Ritika Singh, "Drone Strikes Kill Innocent People: Why Is It So Hard to Know How Many?" New Republic, October 25, 2013.
  • 31. Larry Lewis and Sarah Holewinski, "Changing of the Guard: Civilian Protection for an Evolving Military," PRISM, Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013): 57-66.
  • 32. Department of Justice White Paper, "Lawfulness of a Lethal Operation Directed against a US Citizen Who Is a Senior Operational Leader of Al-Qa'ida or an Associated Force."
  • 33. Scott Neuman, "Man Accused in 1998 Bombings of US Embassies Dies in Custody," NPR, January 3, 2015.
  • 34. Micah Zenko and Sarah Kreps, Limiting Armed Drone Proliferation (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2014), 9.
  • 35. Gordon Lubold, "Pentagon to Sharply Expand US Drone Flights over Next Four Years," Wall Street Journal, August 16, 2015.
  • 36. Audrey Cronin, "Why Drones Fail," Foreign Affairs, July/August 2013.
  • 37. Steve Coll, "The Unblinking Stare," The New Yorker, November 24, 2014.
  • 38. Ibrahim Mothana, "How Drones Help Al qaeda," New York Times, June 13, 2012.
  • 39. Gregory Johnsen, "How We Lost Yemen," Foreign Policy, August 6, 2013.
  • 40. Dan Byman, "Why Drones Work," Foreign Affairs, July/August 2013.
  • 41. C. Christine Fair, "For Now, Drones Are the Best Option," New York Times, January 29, 2013; Avery Plaw, "Drone Strikes Save Lives, American and Other," New York Times, November 14, 2012.
  • 42. Patrick Johnston, "Does Decapitation Work? Assessing the Effectiveness of Leadership Targeting in Counterinsurgency Campaigns," International Security, Vol. 36, No. 4 (2012): 47-79.
  • 43. Jenna Jordan, "When Heads Roll: Assessing the Effectiveness of Leadership Decapitation," Security Studies, 18 (2009): 719-755.
  • 44. Micah Zenko, Reforming US Drone Strike Policies (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2013), 10.
  • 45. Hakim Almasmari, Margaret Coker, and Siobhan Gorman, "Drone Kills Top Al Qaeda Figure," Wall Street Journal, October 1, 2011.
  • 46. Eric Holder, "Letter to Patrick J. Leahy," May 22, 2013, available at http://www.justice.gov/slideshow/AG-letter-5-22-13.pdf.
  • 47. Sabrina Siddiqui, "Obama 'Surprised,' 'Upset' When Anwar Al- Awlaki's Teenage Son Was Killed by U.S. Drone Strike," Huffington Post, April 23, 2013.
  • 48. Craig Whitlock, "US Airstrike That Killed American Teen in Yemen Raises Legal, Ethical Questions," Washington Post, October 22, 2011.
  • 49. Robbie Brown and Kim Severson, "2nd American in Strike Waged Qaeda Media War," New York Times, September 30, 2011.
  • 50. Mark Schone and Matthew Cole, "American Jihadi Samir Khan Killed with Awlaki," ABC News, September 30, 2011.
  • 51. Shashank Bengali, "Fourth US Drone Victim Influenced by Sept 11, War," LA Times, May 23, 2013.
  • 52. "US Drone Strike Accidentally Killed 2 Hostages," CNN, April 23, 2015.
  • 53. Greg Botelho and Ralph Ellis, "Adam Gadahn, American Mouthpiece of Al-Qaeda, Killed," CNN, April 23, 2015; Krishnadev Calamur, "US Operations Killed Two Hostages Held by Al-Qaeda, Including an American," CNPR, April 23, 2015.
  • 54. Leon Panetta, Worthy Fights: A Memoir of Leadership in War and Peace, 387.
  • 55. "Justice Department Memo Reveals Legal Case for Drone Strikes on Americans," NBC News, February 4, 2013.
  • 56. Philip Ewing, "Rand Paul Pulls Plug on Nearly 13-Hour Filibuster on Drones," Politico, March 6, 2013.
  • 57. Jim Michaels, "Rand Paul Filibustering Brennan Nomination to Lead CIA," USA Today, March 6, 2013.
  • 58. Mark Mazzetti and Eric Schmitt, "US Militant, Hidden, Spurs Drone Debate," New York Times, February 28, 2014.
  • 59. Charli Carpenter, "Parsing the Anti-drone Debate," The Duck of Minerva, November 12, 2013.
  • 60. Quoted in Zenko and Kreps, Limiting Armed Drone Proliferation, 8.
  • 61. Panetta, Worthy Fights, 388.
  • 62. Greg Jaffe, "Former Defense Secretary Gates Warns against Lure of Drone Warfare," Washington Post, October 23, 2013.
  • 63. Dave Majumdar, "Air Force Future UAV Roadmap Could Be Released as Early as Next Week," US Naval Intelligence News, November 13, 2013.
  • 64. Aliya Sternstein, "Here's How You Hack a Military Drone," Next Gov, April 27, 2015.
  • 65. "U-2 Has the Edge over Global Hawk," Aviation Week and Space Technology, March 10, 2014.
  • 66. This includes a camera that has a wider panorama than the sensors that are currently on the Global Hawk as well as an airborne electro-optical sensor that can survey seven parts of the spectrum. See Seth Robson, "Air Force Plans Drone Upgrade to Replace U-2 Planes," Stars and Stripes, March 15, 2014.
  • 67. Robson, "Air Force Plans Drone Upgrade."
  • 68. Davis, "Armed and Dangerous?"
  • 69. Anthea Elizabeth Roberts, "Traditional and Modern Approaches to Customary International Law: A Reconciliation," American Journal of International Law, Vol. 95, No. 4 (October 2001): 757-791.
  • 70. John Brennan, "The Efficacy and Ethics of U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy," Woodrow Wilson Center Transcript, April 30, 2012.
  • 71. Jane Mayer, "Torture and Obama's Drone Program," The New Yorker, February 15, 2013, available at http://www.newy- orker.com/online/blogs/newsdesk/2013/02/torture-and- obamas-drone-program.html.
  • 72. Department of Justice White Paper, available at https:// lawfare.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/staging/s3fs-public/ uploads/2013/02/020413_DOJ_White_Paper.pdf.
  • 73. O'Connell notes that states can also use force to suppress rebel uprisings or if a state has been invited to suppress an uprising. These latter two circumstances do not seem germane in terms of the use of drones. See Mary Ellen O'Connell, "Remarks: The Resort to Drones under International Law," Denver Journal of International Law, Vol. 585, No. 39 (2010-2011): 585-600.
  • 74. James Cavallaro, Stephan Sonnenberg, and Sarah Knuckey, Living Under Drones: Death, Injury, and Trauma to Civilians from US Drone Practices in Pakistan. Russell Christopher, "Imminence in Justified Targeted Killing," in Targeted Killing: Law and Morality in Asymmetrical Conflict, Claire Finkelstein, Jens David Ohlin, and Andrew Altman, eds. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2012), 253-284; 284.
  • 75. Judith Gail Gardam, "Proportionality and Force in International Law," American Journal of International Law, Vol. 87, No. 3 (1993): 391-413.
  • 76. "Article 57 Additional Protocol 1 to the Geneva Conventions," (1977), Part IV: Civilian Population.
  • 77. "Article 57 Additional Protocol 1 to the Geneva Conventions" (1977). It should be noted that even though the United States has not ratified AP I, the principles embedded in it are generally considered customary law. Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck, Customary International Humanitarian Law: Rules (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press), 51.
  • 78. Additional Protocol I, 1977; Part IV: Civilian Population.
  • 79. Max Boot, "The New American Way of War," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 82, No. 4 (2003): 41-58.
  • 80. Sarah Kreps and John Kaag, "The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Contemporary Conflict: A Legal and Ethical Analysis," Polity, Vol. 44 (2012): 260-285; 2.
  • 81. Quoted in Scott Shane, "The Moral Case for Drones," New York Times, July 14, 2012.
  • 82. Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions, available at http:// www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebART/375-590006.
  • 83. ICRC, "Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under IHL," International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 90, No. 872 (Dec 2008): 991-1047.
  • 84. William J. Fenrick, "The Targeted Killings Judgment and the Scope of Direct Participation in Hostilities," Journal of International Criminal Law, Vol. 5, No. 2 (2007): 332-338.
  • 85. Jens David Ohlin, "Targeting Co-Belligerents," in Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 68.
  • 86. "Attorney General Eric Holder Speaks at Northwestern University School of Law," Department of Justice Transcript, March 5, 2012.
  • 87. "Remarks by the President at the National Defense University," Ft. McNair, May 23, 2013.
  • 88. Bradley Jay Strawser, "Moral Predators: The Duty to Employ Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles," Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 9, No. 4 (2010): 342-368.
  • 89. John Kaag and Sarah Kreps, "The Moral Hazard of Drones," New York Times, July 22, 2012.
  • 90. Kelley McMillan, "Ski Helmet Use Not Reducing Brain Injuries," New York Times, January 4, 2014.
  • 91. Zenko and Kreps, Limiting Armed Drone Proliferation, 10.
  • 92. Michael Walzer, "Targeted Killing and Drone Warfare," Dissent, January 11, 2013.
  • 93. Special thanks to a former Air Force Predator pilot, December 22, 2014.
  • 94. Dave Majumdar, "Exclusive: US Drone Fleet at 'Breaking Point," Air Force Says," The Daily Beast, January 4, 2015.
  • 95. James Dao, "Drone Pilots Are Found to Get Stress Disorders as Much as Those in Combat Do," New York Times, February 22, 2013.
  • 96. Author's interview with former Predator pilot, December 22, 2014.
  • 97. Ibid.
  • 98. Ernesto Londono, "Pentagon Cancels Divisive Distinguished Warfare Medal for Cyber Ops, Drone Warfare," Washington Post, April 15, 2013.
  • 99. Jim Garamone, "Hagel Replaces Distinguished Warfare Medal with New Device," American Forces Press Service, April 15, 2013.
  • 100. Dao, "Drone Pilots Are Found to Get Stress Disorders Much as Those in Combat Do," 2013.
  • 101. Brian Fung, "The Army's Drone Pilots Aren't Being Trained because They're Too Busy Mowing Lawns," Washington Post, May 15, 2015.
  • 102. Immanuel Kant, "Towards Perpetual Peace," in The Basic Writings of Kant, ed. Allen Wood (New York: Random House, 2001), 422.
  • 103. Dan Reiter and Allan Stam, Democracies at War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002).
  • 104. John Kaag and Sarah Kreps, "Drones and Democratic Peace," Brown Journal of World Affairs, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Spring/Summer 2013): 1-13.
  • 105. For comprehensive public opinion polls on Afghanistan, see http: // www.gallup.com / poll/116233/afghanistan.aspx.
  • 106. "US Supports Some Domestic Drone Use," Monmouth University poll, June 12, 2012.
  • 107. Ryan Goodman, "Targeting Al-Shabaab's Godane Is Not the Same as Targeting Al-Shabaab," Just Security, September 2, 2014.
  • 108. Charlie Savage and Mark Landler, "White House Defends Continuing US Role in Libya Operation," New York Times, June 15, 2011.
  • 109. Harold Koh, "Obama's ISIL Legal Rollout: Bungled, Clearly. But Illegal? Really?" Just Security, September 29, 2014.

Chapter 3

1. General Accountability Office, 2012 report on the proliferation of UAVs. Nonproliferation: Agencies Could Improve Information Sharing and End-Use Monitoring on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Exports, 2012.

  • 2. Kelley Sayler, A World of Proliferated Drones: A Technology Primer (Washington, DC: Center for a New American Security, 2015), 17.
  • 3. Davis et al., Armed and Dangerous.
  • 4. Jefferson Morley, "Israel's Drone Dominance," Salon, May 15, 2012.
  • 5. Defense Security Cooperation Agency, November 4, 2015, available at http://www.dsca.mil/major-arms-sales/italy-weaponization-mq-9s.
  • 6. "Spain to Buy 4 US Surveillance Drones," Defense News, August 6, 2015.
  • 7. Carlo Munoz, "Iraqi Military to Buy Unarmed Drones to Monitor Oil," The Hill, May 21, 2012.
  • 8. Quoted in Zenko and Kreps, Limiting Armed Drone Proliferation, 16.
  • 9. G. J. Harrison, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): Manufacturing Trends, US Congressional Research Service, 2012.
  • 10. Scott Shane, "Coming Soon: The Drone Arms Race," New York Times, October 8, 2011.
  • 11. Patrick Tucker, "Every Country Will Have Armed Drones within 10 Years," Defense One, May 6, 2014.
  • 12. Daniel Byman, "Why Drones Work: The Case for Washington's Weapon of Choice," Foreign Affairs, July/August 2013.
  • 13. The United States expects to have a drone bomber by the 2020s. See David Axe, "Russian Drones Lag US Models by 20 Years," Wired, August 6, 2012.
  • 14. Graham Warwick and Larry Dickerson, "Shifting Growth,"

Aviation Week, 79.

  • 15. "German Defense Minister Seeks Armed Drones for Military," Deutsche Welle, July 1, 2014.
  • 16. "European Parliament Resolution on the Use of Armed Drones (2014/2567(RSP))," European Parliament, February 25, 2014.
  • 17. "JFK on Nuclear Weapons and Non-proliferation," http:// carnegieendowment.org/2003/11/17/jfk-on-nuclear-weapons- and-non-proliferation.
  • 18. Craig Whitlock, "Close Encounters on Rise as Small Drones Gain in Popularity," Washington Post, June 23, 2014.
  • 19. Steven Overly, "For the US Satellite Industry, Strict Export Controls Cost Market Share," Washington Post, March 27, 2011.
  • 20. Christof Heyns, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, 2014, 5.
  • 21. Erik Pineda, "2 Signs Russia Remains Combat-Ready vs US, NATO: Increased Baltic Sea Incursions and Relentless Naval Build-Up," International Business Times, December 10, 2014.
  • 22. "The Chinese Military's Response to Unannounced Drones: Blow 'Em Out of the Sky," Wall Street Journal, December 15, 2014.
  • 23. Mehrdad Balali and Michelle Moghtader, "Iran Says It Shoots Down Israeli Spy Drone," Reuters, August 24, 2014.
  • 24. Panetta, Worthy Fights, 435.
  • 25. Robert Jervis, Perception and Misperception in International Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 1978), 29.
  • 26. Ibid., 23.
  • 27. Richard Whittle, "Turkey Boasts New Predator Drone Clone; Displayed at AUSA," Breaking Defense, October 15, 2014.
  • 28. Mary Catherine O'Connor, "Here Come the Swarming Drones," The Atlantic, October 31, 2014.
  • 29. E. Miasnikov, Threat of Terrorism Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Technical Aspects, Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies, 2014.
  • 30. Kelley Sayler, A World of Proliferated Drones, 29.
  • 31. Breanna Edwards, "Dianne Feinstein: Time to Set Drone Rules," Politico, March 7, 2013.
  • 32. Van Jackson, "Kim Jong Un's Tin Can Air Force," Foreign Policy, November 12, 2014.
  • 33. C. Munoz, "Iran Claims Drones Gained Access to Secret Israeli Facilities," The Hill, October 29, 2012, available at https://thehill. com/policy/defense/264691-iran-claims-drones-gained-access- to-secret-israeli-facilities. See also M. Hoenig, Hezbollah and the Use of Drones as a Weapon of Terrorism, Federation of American Scientists, 2014.
  • 34. Caroline Alexander and Gwen Ackerman, "Hamas Bragging Rights Grow with Drones Use against Israel," Bloomberg, July 16, 2014.
  • 35. "Hamas Flexes Muscles with Gaza Drone Flight," Agence France- Presse, December 14, 2014.
  • 36. Davis et al., Armed and Dangerous, 2014.
  • 37. "New Imagery Details Indian Aura UCAV," Aviation Week, July 16, 2012.
  • 38. Zenko and Kreps, Limiting Armed Drone Proliferation, 18.
  • 39. "Study on the Development of a Framework for Improving End-Use and End-User Control Systems" (Geneva, Switzerland: UNODA Occasional Papers, 2011), 6.
  • 40. Sydney Freedberg Jr., "Military 'Aggressively Working' to Ease Drone Sales Abroad," Breaking Defense, August 9, 2012.
  • 41. In the notification to Congress, the Obama administration did not indicate that the United States would have to contend with the MTCR's strong presumption of denial for exports of the Global Hawk. See Jim Wolf, "US Moves to Sell Advanced Spy Drones to South Korea," Reuters, December 25, 2012; James Hardy, "Update: Singapore Airshow 2014: Northrop Grumman Hopeful of South Korean Global Hawk Deal Soon," Jane's Defense Weekly, February 11, 2014.
  • 42. Allen Buchanan and Robert Keohane, "International Institutional Regulation of Lethal Drones," Princeton University, 2014.
  • 43. Zenko and Kreps, Limiting Armed Drone Proliferation, 78.
  • 44. Ben Emmerson, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms While Countering Terrorism, 2014, available at http://www.lawfareblog. com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/A-HRC-25-59.doc; 7-9.
  • 45. Christof Heyns, Report by the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, 2014, 23.
  • 46. Zenko and Kreps, Limiting Armed Drone Proliferation, 25.
  • 47. Ben Popper, "Homeland Security Is Testing Nightmare Scenarios Where Toy Drones Become Flying Bombs," The Verge, February 6, 2015.
  • 48. Tessa Berenson, "Drone Carrying Meth Crashes Near Mexico Border," Time, January 22, 2015.

Chapter 4

  • 1. "iRobot 510 PackBot," available at http://www.irobot.com/For- Defense-and-Security/Robots/510-PackBot.aspx#PublicSafety.
  • 2. Tim Hornyak, "iRobot Military Bots to Patrol 2014 World Cup in Brazil," CNET, May 15, 2013.
  • 3. Elisabeth Braw, "How Robot Dogs Are Changing the Face of Warfare," Newsweek, July 1, 2014.
  • 4. TALON, by QinetiQ North America, available at https://www. qinetiq-na.com/products/unmanned-systems/talon/.
  • 5. Paul McLeary, "US Army's Unmanned Ground Vehicle Research Creeps Along," Defense News, May 13, 2014.
  • 6. "The Inside Story of the SWORDS Armed Robot 'Pullout' in Iraq: Update," Popular Mechanics, October 1, 2009.
  • 7. Paul McLeary, "US Army's Unmanned Ground Vehicle Research Creeps Along," Defense News, May 13, 2014.
  • 8. "Unmanned Ground Vehicle Market by Application," Markets and Markets, September 2014.
  • 9. "Unmanned Ground Vehicles: Core Capabilities & Market Background" (2013), The Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, available at http://higherlogicdownload.s3.amazonaws.com/ AUVSI/f28f661a-e248-4687-b21d-34342433abdb/UploadedFiles/ AUVSIUGVCoreCapabilitiesandMarketBackground08-08-13.pdf.
  • 10. "Europe's Focus on Unmanned Network Centric Solutions to Boost the Unmanned Ground Vehicles Market, Says Frost and Sullivan," August 4, 2010, Frost & Sullivan, available at http://www. frost.com / prod/servlet/press-release.pag?docid=208494369.
  • 11. Richard Tomkins, "Israel Defense Forces to Deploy More Unmanned Ground Vehicles," UPI, June 3, 2014.
  • 12. http://www.idf.il/1283-17082-EN/Dover.aspx.
  • 13. Walter Farah, "Unmanned Ground Vehicles, Guardium MK III," July 2, 2013, available at https://walterfarah.wordpress.com/tag/ guardium/.
  • 14. "The IDF's Latest Wizardry: Unmanned Ground Vehicles," IDF Spokesperson's Office, June 3, 2014.
  • 15. David Hambling, "Russia Wants Autonomous Fighting Robots, and Lots of Them," Popular Mechanics, May 12, 2014.
  • 16. Ibid.
  • 17. Sushant Kulkarni, "Faster, Lighter, DRDO's Daksh Now Has CBRN Detection Mechanism," The Indian Express, September 26, 2015.
  • 18. "PLA Working to Develop Unmanned Armored Vehicles," China Daily USA, July 23, 2014.
  • 19. Jon Grevatt, "China Inaugurates UGV Facility," HIS Jane’s 360, July 23, 2014.
  • 20. Author's interview, E-7 soldier from the 82nd Airborne; January 14, 2015.
  • 21. Dean Nelson, "Indian Soldier Beheaded by Pakistani Troops as Kashmir Dispute Escalates," Telegraph, January 8, 2013.
  • 22. "UN Observers Claim to Have Witnessed Israeli Drones Prior to Golan Strike," Jerusalem Post, January 20, 2015.
  • 23. Sally Cole, "Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Modernize US Navy's Sea-Mine-Hunting Capabilities," Military Embedded Systems, available at http://mil-embedded.com/articles/unmanned-navys- sea-mine-hunting-capabilities/.
  • 24. Department of Defense Unmanned Undersea Vehicles information, available at www.dtic.mil/ndia/2005umv_auv/thursday/ wood.pdf.
  • 25. "US Moving Submersibles to Persian Gulf to Oppose Iran," LA Times, July 11, 2012.
  • 26. Samuel Brannan, Sustaining the US Lead in Unmanned Systems: Military and Homeland Considerations through 2025 (Washington, DC: CSIS 2014), 11.
  • 27. "Spartan Unmanned Surface Vehicle Successful Live-Fire Tests," US Naval Sea Systems Command, May 11, 2005, available at http://www.defense-aerospace.com/articles-view/ release/3/ 56957/spartan-unmanned-boat-in-live-fire-tests-(may-12).html.
  • 28. "Spartan USVs for Singapore's Navy," Defense Industry Daily, May 18, 2005, available at http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/ spartan-usvs-for-singapores-navy-0540/.
  • 29. Andrew Tarantola, "US Coasts Could be Guarded by Unmanned Drone Boats," Gizmodo, April 11, 2012.
  • 30. Robert Brizzolara, "Surface Autonomy Is Heading for the Fleet," Future Force, March 28, 2014.
  • 31. David Smalley, "The Future is Now: Navy's Autonomous Swarmboats can Overwhelm Adversaries," Office of Naval Research, available at http://www.onr.navy.mil/Media-Center/ Press-Releases/2014/autonomous-swarm-boat-unmanned- caracas.aspx.
  • 32. "Pioneer Short Range (SR) UAV," Federation of American Scientists, available at http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/ pioneer.htm.
  • 33. "In a First, Unmanned Navy Jet Lands on Aircraft Carrier," NPR, July 10, 2013.
  • 34. Sam LaGrone, "Compromise Defense Bill Restricts Navy UCLASS Funds," US Naval Intelligence News, December 3, 2014.
  • 35. "Israel Defense Forces to Develop Drone Submarines, Market Expected to Reach $2 Billion," The Algemeiner, October 17, 2013.
  • 36. Henry Kenyon, "Israel Deploys Robot Guardians," Signal, March 2006.
  • 37. Yuval Azulai, "Israel to Develop Unmanned Submarines," Globes, October 15, 2013.
  • 38. Nick Hopkins, "Ministry of Defense Plans New Wave of Unmanned Marine Drones," The Guardian, August 2, 2012.
  • 39. "Russian Navy Plans on Commissioning Undersea Reconnaissance Drone in 2 Years—Newspaper," RT, June 26, 2014.
  • 40. Carl Schuster, "Drones Take South China Sea Plunge," Asia Times, August 29, 2012.
  • 41. Manoj Das, "Navy Plans Unmanned Aircraft to Tackle Piracy," India Times, June 16, 2013. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ india/Navy-plans-unmanned-aircraft-to-tackle-piracy/article- show/20609697.cms.
  • 42. Manoj Das, "Navy Plans Unmanned Aircraft to Tackle Piracy," The Times of India, June 16, 2013.
  • 43. Christopher Harress, "Sweden Confirms Secret Second Hunt for Another Russian Submarine," International Business Times, January 12, 2015.
  • 44. Antoine Martin, "US Expands Use of Underwater Unmanned Vehicles," National Defense Magazine, April 2012.
  • 45. Kelly Dickerson, "Underwater Drones Map Algae beneath Antarctic Ice," Live Science, January 13, 2015.
  • 46. Julie Makinen, "Underwater Vehicle to Look for Malaysia Jet in Area 'New to Man,'" LA Times, April 13, 2014.

Chapter 5

  • 1. Steve Dent, "What You Need to Know about Commercial Drones," engadget, June 13, 2014.
  • 2. "How Many Drones Monitor US Borders?" Christian Science Monitor, available at http://www.csmonitor.com/Photo-Galleries/ Infographics/The-future-of-drones-in-the-US#705889.
  • 3. Craig Whitlock and Craig Timberg, "Border Patrol Drones Being Borrowed by Other Agencies More Often Than Previously Known," The Washington Post, January 14, 2014.
  • 4. Jack Nicas, "Drone Patrols on US Border Ineffective, Report Finds," Wall Street Journal, January 6, 2015.
  • 5. "Can Americans Challenge Evidence Collected by Drones?" Christian Science Monitor, April 19, 2014.
  • 6. Ed Pilkington, "'We See Ourselves as the Vanguard': The Police Force Using Drones to Fight Crime," The Guardian, October 1, 2014.
  • 7. James Wood, "City Rolls Out Drone Monitoring Program," Meridian Booster, March 31, 2015.
  • 8. Melissa Pamer and Mark Mester, "LAPD's 2 Drones Will Remain Grounded during Policy Review, Police Commission Says amid Protest," KTLA, September 15, 2014.
  • 9. Jonah Spangenthal-Lee, "SPD UAVs Leave Seattle to Try to Make It in Hollywood," SPD Blotter, June 2, 2014, available at http:// spdblotter.seattle.gov/2014/06/02/spd-uavs-leave-seattle-to-try- to-make-it-in-hollywood/.
  • 10. "US Approves More Commercial Drone Use as Congress Probes Risks," Reuters, December 10, 2014.
  • 11. Chris Wickham, "Military Drones Zero In on a $400 Billion Civilian Market," Reuters, November 14, 2012.
  • 12. "Press Release—FAA Grants Five More Commercial UAS Exemptions," available at http://www.faa.gov/news/press_ releases/news_story.cfm?newsId=17934&cid=TW286.
  • 13. W. J. Hennigan, "FAA Allows First Commercial Drone Flights over Land," LA Times, June 10, 2014.
  • 14. Hallie Busta, "The FAA's Latest Drone-Use Approvals Include Construction Firms," Architect, December 10, 2014.
  • 15. Clay Dillow, "Drones to Speed Up Construction Costs," Fortune, December 29, 2014.
  • 16. Lizzie Schiffman Tufano, "Loop-Based Clayco Corp Gets OK to Use Drones," DNA Info, December 11, 2014.
  • 17. AUVSI Economic Report 2013, 6.
  • 18. Graham Warwick and Larry Dickerson, "Shifting Growth," Aviation Week and Space Technology, December 29, 2014-January 11, 2015, 79-81.
  • 19. Chad Garland, "Drones May Provide Big Lift to Agriculture When FAA Allows Their Use," LA Times, September 13, 2014.
  • 20. Miranda Green, "Unmanned Drones May Have Their Greatest Impact on Agriculture," The Daily Beast, March 26, 2013.
  • 21. Letter requesting exemption for Amazon's testing of delivery drones, dated July 9, 2014, available at http://www.regulations. gov/contentStreamer?objectId=090000648179bc8f&disposition=a ttachment&contentType=pdf.
  • 22. Alex Hern, "DHL Launches First Commercial Drone 'Parcelcopter' Delivery Service," The Guardian, September 25, 2014.
  • 23. Colleen Taylor, "How Matternet Wants to Bring Drone Delivery to the People Who Need It Most," Tech Crunch, December 10, 2013.
  • 24. Tekla Perry, "Matternet's Package Delivery Drones," IEEE Spectrum Techwise Conversation, December 19, 2013.
  • 25. Ellen Gamerman, "Drones Invade Hollywood," Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2015.
  • 26. "CNN Teams Up with the FAA for Reporter Drones," The Hollywood Reporter, January 12, 2015.
  • 27. Dylan Byers, "CNN Strikes Drone Deal with FAA," Politico, January 12, 2015.
  • 28. Eddie Pells, "Winter X Games to Use Drones to Capture Action on Snow," ABC News, January 20, 2015.
  • 29. Linda Qiu, "Watch: Can Drones Help Save Wildlife around the World?" National Geographic, November 14, 2014.
  • 30. Mark Stevenson, "Mexico to Use Drones to Protect Endangered Porpoise," ABC News, January 19, 2015.
  • 31. "About wcUAVc," Wildlife Conservation UAV Challenge, available at http://www.wcuavc.eom/#lleadership/cktc.
  • 32. Patrick Tucker, "The Secret Weapon in the War on Poaching ... and Terrorism," Defense One, April 28, 2014.
  • 33. Matt McFarland, "American Red Cross Takes Serious Look at Using Drones for Disaster Relief, Holds Off for Now," Washington Post, April 21, 2015.
  • 34. Lauren Pelley, "Drone Popularity Soaring This Holiday Season," Toronto Star, December 22, 2014.
  • 35. This includes about 100 per week of the drones his company, 3D Robotics, makes.
  • 36. This does not include other online drone enthusiast communities that exist, though DIYdrones.com appears to be the largest. See Chris Anderson, "How I Accidentally Kickstarted the Domestic Drone Boom," Wired, June 22, 2012.
  • 37. Todd Bishop, "No Fad: Consumer Drones Will Become a $1 Billion Global Sector by 2018, Economist Says," Geek World, January 4, 2015.
  • 38. Tracy Staedter, "Tasty Tech Eye Candy of the Week: Drones Attack," Discovery News, December 28, 2014.
  • 39. Chris Anderson, "Why We Shouldn't Fear Personal Drones," Time, January 31, 2013.
  • 40. Kate Murphy, "Things to Consider Before Buying That Drone," New York Times, December 6, 2014.
  • 41. Author's interview with Ray Kelly, February 2014.
  • 42. "Drones Nearly Collide with NYPD Helicopter, Two Arrested," RT, July 8, 2014.
  • 43. Craig Whitlock, "Close Encounters on Rise as Small Drones Gain in Popularity," Washington Post, June 23, 2014.
  • 44. Tara Patel, "Mystery Drones in France Expose Vulnerability of Nuclear Sites," Bloomberg Businessweek, November 4, 2014.
  • 45. "Britain's Nuclear Plants 'Could be Attacked by Drones': Report," The Hindu, December 21, 2014.
  • 46. Armin Rosen, "The Navy's New Drone-Killing Laser May Not Be as Impressive as It Seems," Business Insider, May 19, 2015.
  • 47. Robot Dragonfly, Micro Aerial Vehicle, available at https://www. indiegogo.com/projects/robot-dragonfly-micro-aerial-vehicle.
  • 48. Rand Paul, "Don't Let Drones Invade Our Privacy," CNN, June 15, 2012.
  • 49. Letter from Rand Paul to Robert Mueller, June 20, 2013.
  • 50. Catherine Crump, "What the FBI Needs to Tell Americans about Its Use of Drones," American Civil Liberties Union, July 26, 2013.
  • 51. FBI Letter to Senator Rand Paul, July 19, 2013.
  • 52. FBI Letter to Members Lofgren and Poe, July 19, 2013.
  • 53. Richard Thompson II, Drones in Domestic Surveillance Operations: Fourth Amendment Implications and Legislative Responses, Congressional Research Service, April 3, 2013, 14.
  • 54. Brendan Sasso, "Police Drones Prompt Privacy Concerns," The Hill, November 3, 2012.
  • 55. John Villasenor, "Will 'Drones' Outflank the Fourth Amendment?" Forbes, September 20, 2012.
  • 56. Ibid.
  • 57. Andrew Couts, "Drones: 13 Things You Need to Know: Congress's New Report," Digital Trends, September 12, 2012.
  • 58. Wells Bennett, "Civilian Drones, Privacy, and the Federal-State Balance," Brookings Institution, September 2014.
  • 59. Joan Lowy, "AP-NCC Poll: A Third of the Public Fears Police Use of Drones for Surveillance Will Erode Their Privacy," Associated Press, September 27, 2012.
  • 60. Rasmussen poll conducted October 24-25, 2013.
  • 61. Emily Ekins, "Reason-Rupe December 2013 National Survey," December 13, 2013.
  • 62. Unmanned Aircraft and the Human Element: Public Perceptions and First Responder Concerns, Institute for Homeland Security Solutions Research Brief, June 2013.
  • 63. "Summary," in Richard Thompson II, Drones in Domestic Surveillance Operations: Fourth Amendment Implications and Legislative Responses, Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2013.
  • 64. Paul Hollis, "FAA Drone Ruling Said to Be Setback for Farmers," Southeast Farm Press, August 10, 2014.
  • 65. Brian Naylor, "Sources: FAA May Require Licenses to Fly Commercial Drones," NPR, December 9, 2014.
  • 66. Federal Aviation Administration, www.faa.gov/uas.
  • 67. "Busting Myths about the FAA and Unmanned Aircraft," available at http://www.faa.gov/news/updates/?newsId=76240.
  • 68. Sara Fischer, "FAA to Ramp Up Drone Education, Regulation," CNN, December 1, 2014.
  • 69. Bart Alias, Pilotless Drones, CRS Report 2012, 8.
  • 70. Ibid.
  • 71. Keith Laing, "FAA Sets Up Final Drone Testing Site," The Hill, August 13, 2014.
  • 72. Jordan Golson, "Rural Pilots Won't Be Happy about the FAA's New Drone Rules," Wired, November 26, 2014.
  • 73. Justin Bachman, "Not an Airplane Pilot? You Won't Be Flying Commercial Drones," Bloomberg Businessweek, November 28, 2014.
  • 74. The Economic Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the United States, Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, March 2013.
  • 75. Jack Nicas and Andy Pasztor, "Drone Flights Face FAA Hit," Wall Street Journal, November 24, 2014.
  • 76. "FAA 'Hundreds of Cases' of Operating Drones 'Carelessly' & 'Recklessly,'" CNN, November 30, 2014.
  • 77. Todd Bishop, "FAA Looking into Picture Taken by Drone above Space Needle," GeekWire, December 10, 2014.
  • 78. Michael Berry and Nabiha Syed, "State Legislation Governing Private Drone Use," Washington Post, September 25, 2014.
  • 79. Allie Bohm, "The Year of the Drone: An Analysis of State Legislation Passed This Year," ACLU, November 7, 2013.
  • 80. Allie Bohm, "The First State Laws on Drones," ACLU, April 15, 2013.
  • 81. Joe Wolverton II, "Gov Rick Scott Signs Florida Drone Regulation Bill," The New American, April 25, 2013.
  • 82. Don Soloman, "Texas's Drone Law Is Pretty Much the Opposite of Every Other State's Drone Law," Texas Monthly, September 17, 2013.
  • 83. Christina Mulligan, "Georgia Prepares for the Drone Industry," InterDrone, May 27, 2015, available at http://www.interdrone. com/news/georgia-prepares-for-the-drone-industry.
  • 84. Allie Bohm, "The Year of the Drone: An Analysis of State Legislation Passed This Year," American Civil Liberties Union, November 7, 2013.
  • 85. Thomas Claburn, "Google Tests Delivery Drones," Information Week, September 2, 2014.
  • 86. UAV Global Unmanned Systems and Manufacturers, available at http://www.uavglobal.com/list-of-manufacturers/.
  • 87. Clay Dillow, "Despite FAA Dithering, a Drone Economy Sprouts on the Farm," Fortune, September 16, 2014.
  • 88. The Economic Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the United States, 5.
  • 89. Transport Canada, "Flying an Unmanned Aircraft Recreationally," available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/civilaviation/stan- dards/general-recavi-uav-2265.htm?WT.mc_id=21zwi.
  • 90. Jim Bronskill, "Study Warns That Unmanned Drones over Canada Could Be 'Intrusive,'" CTV News, November 12, 2013.
  • 91. "Permission and Safety Requirements," available at http://www. tc.gc.ca/eng/civilaviation/standards/standards-4179.html.
  • 92. Safety requirements available at http://wwwapps.tc.gc.ca/Saf- Sec-Sur/2/NPA-APM/doc.aspx?id=10293.
  • 93. Andrew Trotman, "Hearing a Buzzing Noise? It Could Be Amazon Testing Its Drones," Telegraph, November 13, 2014.
  • 94. SUA Operators. Rep. UK CAA, available at http://www.caa.co.uk/ docs/1995/Dec2014%20Report%20UAVcurrentDates.pdf.
  • 95. Charles Arthur, "Amazon Seeks US Permission to Test Prime Air Delivery Drones," The Guardian, July 11, 2014.
  • 96. Andy Pasztor, "U.S., Europe Differ on Approach to Commercial Drones," The Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2014.
  • 97. Graham Warwick and Larry Dickerson, "Shifting Growth," Aviation Week and Space Technology, December 29, 2014-January 11, 2015.
  • 98. Connor Adams Sheets, "China Beat Amazon Prime Air to the Commercial Drone Delivery Market," International Business Times, December 2, 2013.
  • 99. "Panique en China a cause d'un drone," Le Figaro, October 23, 2014.
  • 100. Adrian Wan, "Little Airspace Free for Commercial Drones in China," South China Morning Post, August 7, 2013.
  • 101. Jeremy Blum, "Chinese Delivery Company Develops Drones Which Can Fly Packages to Your Doorstep," South China Morning Post, December 24, 2014.
  • 102. Emile Orzea, "China's UAS Regulation," Small UAS News, November 4, 2014.
  • 103. Crispin Andrews, "Wildlife Monitoring: Should UAV Drones Be Banned?" Engineering and Technology Magazine, July 14, 2014.
  • 104. Caitlin Kauffman, "Green Life: Poachers v. Drones: The Next Frontier," Sierra, May/June 2014.
  • 105. Letter from Jeff Bezos to FAA Administrator Michael Huerta, July 9, 2014.
  • 106. Krithika Krishnamurthy, "India to Be Launch Pad for Amazon's Plan to Deliver Packages Using Drones; Deliveries May Start by Diwali," India Times, August 20, 2014.
  • 107. Tim Bradshaw, "Google Tests Drone Deliveries in Australia," Financial Times, August 29, 2014.
  • 108. Jack Stewart, "Google Tests Drone Deliveries in Project Wing Trials," BBC, August 28, 2014.
  • 109. Thomas Claburn, "Google Tests Delivery Drones," Information Week, September 2, 2014.
  • 110. Ben Vogel, "EASA Weighs Up Civil Certification of Airbus UAV," HIS Jane's Airport Review, October 14, 2014.
  • 111. Pasztor, "US, Europe Differ on Approach to Commercial Drones."

Chapter 6

  • 1. Meghan Neal, "The Pentagon's Vision for the Future of Military Drones," Vice, December 28, 2013.
  • 2. Zoe Kleinman, "CES 2015: Why the Future of Drones Is Up in the Air," BBC, January 8, 2015.
  • 3. FAA Forecast 201048.
  • 4. Christopher Harress, "Here's What the Future of Insect and Nano Drones Looks Like," Investor Business Times, January 9, 2014.
  • 5. Air Force Bugbot Nano Drone Laboratory, by the Air Force Research Laboratory, April 11, 2013, available at https://www. youtube. com / watch?v=z 78mgf Kprdg.
  • 6. Air Force Research Lab, April 11, 2013.
  • 7. Zach Honig, "T-Hawk UAV Enters Fukushima Danger Zone, Returns with Video," engadget, April 21, 2011.
  • 8. Darren Quick, "TechJect's Dragonfly Micro UAV Flies Like a Bird and Hovers Like an Insect," gizmag, November 7, 2012.
  • 9. Julie Watson, "On the Wings of Technology: Hummingbird Drones," NBC News, February 28, 2011.
  • 10. Andrew Tarantola, "Black Hornet: The $195,000 Spy Plane That Fits in the Palm of Your Hand," Gizmodo, February 6, 2013.
  • 11. The author's October 15, 2014, visit to the lab and interview with Sujata Bhatia, lecturer on Biomedical Engineering at Harvard University, revealed the complexity of this microbiotics technology.
  • 12. Adam Piore, "Rise of the Insect Drones," Popular Science, January 29, 2014.
  • 13. Darlene Storm, "Google's Eric Schmidt Worried about Privacy from Civilian Nano Drones," Computer World, April 16, 2013.
  • 14. James Ball, "Drones Should Be Banned from Private Use, Says Google's Eric Schmidt," The Guardian, April 20, 2013.
  • 15. Douglas Ernst, "Nano Drone a Kickstarters Success; Personal Paparazzi Devices Ship in 2015," The Washington Times, December 9, 2014.
  • 16. Mark Thompson, "Air Force Argument for New Bomber Bombs, Top General Says," Time, July 14, 2011.
  • 17. DOD, Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap FY2009-2034 (Washington, DC: GPO, April 20, 2009), available at www.dtic. mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2 / a522247.pdf, 27.
  • 18. DoD Roadmap 2009, 10.
  • 19. Kreps and Kaag, "UAV Analysis," 25.
  • 20. Ronald Arkin and Patrick Ulam, "An Ethical Adapter: Behavioral Modification Derived from Moral Emotions," IEEE Technical Report GIT-GVU-09-04, 2009, available at http:// www.cc.gatech.edu/ai/robot-lab/online-publications/ ArkinUlamTechReport2009.pdf.
  • 21. Ronald Arkin, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots, Chapman and Hall, 2009.
  • 22. Reaching Critical Will, Fully Autonomous Weapons, available at http://www.reachingcriticalwill.org/resources/fact-sheets/ critical-issues/7972-fully-autonomous-weapons.
  • 23. "UN: 'Killer Robot' Talks Go Forward, Slowly," November 14, 2014, available at http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/11/14/ un-killer-robot-talks-go-forward-slowly.
  • 24. Tom Risen, "Musk, Hawking Call to Ban Robots That Could Kill You All by Themselves," US News, July 27, 2015.
  • 25. Michael Horowitz and Paul Scharre, "Do Killer Robots Save Lives," Politico, November 19, 2014.
  • 26. Robin Marantz Henig, "Death by Robot," New York Times, January 9, 2015.
  • 27. Stu Robarts, "Google X Takes Wraps off Project Developing Autonomous Delivery Drones," Giz Mag, August 28, 2014.
  • 28. Ryan Gajewski, "'Back to the Future II': 8 Predictions It Got Wrong about 2015," The Hollywood Reporter, January 5, 2015.
  • 29. Roger Ebert, "Stealth," July 27, 2005, available at www.rogerebert. com/reviews/stealth-2005.
  • 30. Heather Kelly, "Beer-Delivery Drone Grounded by FAA," CNN, February 3, 2014.
  • 31. Fareed Zakaria, "American Innovation Is in Trouble," Washington Post, January 1, 2014.
  • 32. Nick Bilton and John Markoff, "A Hardware Renaissance in Silicon Valley," New York Times, August 25, 2012.
  • 33. Hiroko Tabuchi, "Venture Capitalists Return to Backing Science Start-Ups," New York Times, October 12, 2014.
  • 34. Marcus Wohlsen, "The Ex-Googlers Building Drones That Anybody Can Pilot with a Phone," Wired, January 15, 2015.
  • 35. Ben Popper, "A Tiny Startup Has Made Big Strides in Creating Self-Navigating Drones," The Verge, January 15, 2015.
  • 36. Ibid.
  • 37. Kevin Poulsen, "Why the US Government Is Terrified of Hobbyist Drones," Wired, February 5, 2015.
  • 38. Gregory McNeal, "FAA's Proposed Drone Rules May Include Toy Drones," Forbes, January 29, 2015.
  • 39. Alwyn Scott, "Americans OK with Police Drones—Private Ownership, Not So Much: Poll," Reuters, February 5, 2015.
  • 40. Kelsey Atherton, "Ban Drones from Your Airspace with NoFlyZone," Popular Science, February 12, 2015.
  • 41. Jackie Wattles, "Jeff Bezos: Amazon Drones Will Be as Common as Seeing a Mail Truck." CNN, August 16, 2015.
 
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