Notes

  • 1. The connection between basic science and national security was crystalized in Vannevar Bush’s report in 1945, after which Congress created the National Science Foundation. In 1958, the military-academic collaboration spurred by President Eisenhower culminated in the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), part of the Pentagon. The ARPANET is the network created by their mission of connecting computers to enable information transfer. Multiple smaller networks developed, but were not interconnected. In 1973, Robert Kahn conceived the idea of connecting networks into an inter-network, which subsequently became the Internet. With a capital I, the Internet now represents the entire technological ecosystem associated with this network.
  • 2. This is the Red Queen Effect, which I discuss in the conclusion.
  • 3. Facebook announced on June 29, 2016 that it would emphasize news about family and friends over more general news. They wrote on their website, “We are not in the business of picking which issues the world should read about. We are in the business of connecting people and ideas - and matching people with the stories they find most meaningful. Our integrity depends on being inclusive of all perspectives and view points, and using ranking to connect people with the stories and sources they find the most meaningful and engaging. We don’t favor specific kinds of sources - or ideas. Our aim is to deliver the types of stories we’ve gotten feedback that an individual most wants to see” [121].
 
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