Political Economy of Investment in Syria

The political economy of Syria before the uprisingData and methodologySyria: a traditionally self-sufficient economySyria's rent-based economic growth during 1990-2010Impact of oil revenues on macroeconomic developmentAn overview of the trend in gross fixed capital formation rate and its decomposition since the 1960s17A critical examination of the theoretical investment approaches within the context of state-controlled developing economiesStructure of the bookReview of the Theoretical Framework on Investment DecisionsInvestment, capital and capital accumulationThe conventional neoclassical theory of investmentDrawbacks of the neoclassical theory of investment and capitalThe demand-led approach to investmentExpectations, risk and uncertaintyClosing remarkInvestment Promotion in Developing CountriesThe 'socialisation of investment'Investment promotion in the developing world and the role of the stateThe developmental state paradigmThe structuralist paradigm4The state-capitalist paradigm6The state-capitalist class as the agent of investmentConcluding remarksClass and State Capitalism in SyriaIntroductionDefinition of social classThe Syrian road to state capitalismSyria's old bourgeois class: was it an agent of investment?The formation of the Ba'ath partySyria's middle class aspires to radical changeThe lifelong opposition of the Muslim BrotherhoodThe role of the militaryState capitalism under Ba'athist ruleThe state-capitalist class in control of the stateThe rise of the new commercial bourgeoisieThe class aspect of Syrian workers12The delinking of the working class from the political processThe Hafiz Assad regime (1970-2000)Twilight of state capitalismConcluding remarksInvestment Liberalisation during the Hafiz Assad Regime: Moving to a 'Freer' MarketIntroductionOverdetermination of politics in Syria's movement toward infitahHafiz sets the foundation for piecemeal and tailored market expansionLebanon: a facilitator for Syria's slow pace of economic liberalisationThe early Hafiz days: living the legacy of statismThe economic crisis of the mid-1980sInvestment liberalisation in 1991: opening the way to a 'freer' marketConcluding remarksEconomic Liberalisation as an Irreversible Trend during the Bashar Regime: The Socioeconomic Fuel of the Syrian CrisisIntroductionThe Bashar Assad regime: difficult inheritance and the metamorphosis of the state bourgeoisieBashar's uncontrolled lurch into a market-driven economic orderInvestment liberalisationTrade liberalisationPrivatisation of state farmsLifting of price controls and subsidiesPrivate banking systemMonetary policyThe issue of privatisationThe implications of investment reforms during Bashar and Hafiz regimesLaw No. 10's contribution to industrial activitiesDistribution of investment projects of Law No. 10 by economic sectorThe divide between industrialists and merchantsLD No. 8 of 2007 boosted investment in real estateLaw No. 10's impact on foreign direct investmentThe socioeconomic roots of the Syrian uprising of 2011Rising unemployment and povertySocial polarisationDampening of purchasing powerDeteriorating living conditions in the countrysideConcluding remarksThe book in perspectiveWhat's next for Syria? No room for socioeconomic planning amid imperialist-sponsored violenceBibliography
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