All of the frameworks provide learning outcomes or standards. However, there is some variation in the ways these are presented.
With the exception of Malaysia and Scotland, the frameworks provide specific learning outcomes that are based on progressions of learning across curriculum levels. These are typically organised according to the dimensions of financial education. The Malaysian and Scottish frameworks provide a description or list of learning outcomes for each dimension, but these are not levelled. The South African framework provides a list of learning outcomes per subject in which financial literacy is integrated depending on grade level. The Dutch framework provides a detailed list of key concepts in financial literacy according to age and sector (with a distinction between general and vocational- oriented learning targets).
The frameworks have a number of topics in common. These are:
- • money and transaction;
- • planning and managing finances (including saving and spending; credit and debt; financial decision-making);
- • risk and rewards;
- • financial landscape (including consumers’ rights and responsibilities and understanding of the wider financial, economic and social system).
Australia, Japan, Northern Ireland, Scotland and South Africa also include consumer rights and responsibilities. The Jump$tart, Japanese, Malaysian and South African frameworks include investment. The South African framework also encompasses caution against scams as well as recourse, insurance and retirement.