The Dutch, Japanese, Malaysian, Scottish and JumpStart frameworks cover the whole of the formal school sector. The Australian, New Zealand, and Northern Ireland frameworks cover kindergarten or the beginning of primary school to Year 10 (early secondary level). The Scottish and English 2008 frameworks focus on the secondary level only, up to Key Stage 4. The South African framework covers grade 7-12.
Approach to inclusion of financial education in the curriculum (see also “Implementing financial education in schools” in Chapter 2)
In all of the frameworks, a cross-curricular and/or integrated approach is recommended as a way to include financial education in teaching and learning programmes. In most cases, this is because the learning outcomes for financial education are not explicitly included in existing curricular subjects.
The English curriculum from 2008 is something of an exception as financial literacy is explicitly included within personal, social, health and economic education (PSHE) at secondary level in the economic wellbeing and financial literacy programmes of study. However, the English 2008 framework also recommends an integrated curriculum approach for the inclusion of financial education learning outcomes within other subjects.
The JumpStart framework recommends either a curriculum integrated approach or designing new financial education courses depending on which approach is most appropriate for the specific context at state level.