What Next?

In this introductory chapter, the scope of the cultures constituting mul- ticulturalism has been explored. The culture of multiculturalism is limited. It is embedded in the civic culture of a city and in the overarching societal culture. The chapter lays out the definitions of basic terms, that is, culture, community, ethnicity, and identity. These definitions will frame further discussions. Chapter 2 is an attempt to clarify and spell out the concepts that underlie the observations and analysis of subsequent chapters. It offers an examination of the concept of multi- culturalism, its various forms, and political and social discourse about diversity and social cohesion. The idea of common ground is examined as the complement of multiple cultures. How these concepts relate to the ideas of citizenship and rights to the city24 forms another theme in this chapter. Chapter 3 explores how immigration lays the basis of multiculturalism and examines its role in implanting cultural diversity. Chapter 4 is an analysis of the spatial structure of multicultural cities. Chapter 5 describes the ethnic contours of the economic organization of multicultural cities in the three cities and explores the phenomenon of ethnic entrepreneurship in urban economies. Chapter 6 analyses the social organization of multicultural cities and their constituent communities. Chapter 7 recapitulates the experience of everyday living in multicultural cities. Chapter 8 is a description of the trends in the political incorporation of ethnic communities. Chapter 9 examines the process of accommodating cultural diversity in the provision of urban services. Chapter 10 analyses the state of planning for multicultural cities and develops an approach to balance cultural diversity and public interest. Finally, chapter 11 sums up the findings of previous chapters and develops a generic model of a multicultural city.

Cultural diversity and its transforming influences on the social, economic, political, and spatial institutions of a city are the focus of this book. Immigrants' settlement and integration are not its primary focus, though their roles as bearers of cultural diversity are analysed.

This book lies at the intersection of two theoretical discourses. It is firmly planted in the discourse on multiculturalism, on the one hand, and in urban theories of the spatial, economic, and social and political/ managerial institutions of cities, on the other. The former discourse will be explored in the next chapter and then the application of multicultur- alism will be examined through the theoretical lenses of the respective topics in subsequent chapters. The focus remains on the infusion of cultural pluralism into urban institutions.

Another point to be clarified is that there are vast and distinct bodies of literature on the spatial, economic, social, political, and policymaking aspects of cities in general, but not on the three cities in particular. I will draw selectively on relevant disciplines, theories, and empirical observations in subsequent chapters, guided by my focus on the infusion of multicultural ethos into each institution. Obviously, the book will not attempt to summarize the vast body of literature on each topic and about each city. Such a task is neither necessary nor feasible. Instead, it will recapitulate those theories and observations that have direct bearing on the objectives of the book.

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