Sustainability refers to a harmonious relationship between humans and the environment. It ensures that human needs can continue to be met in the long run through conservation and allowing the regeneration of the natural environment (Keirstead and Leach, 2008; Alberti and Susskind, 1996). This category refers to the urban population's basic needs and quality of life, which includes the measures of individual income, poverty, income distribution, unemployment and training, housing conditions, health, security, and work satisfaction (Kourtit et al., 2012; Awaluddin, 2014).

Quality of Life

This subcategory includes the topics that cover the basic dimensions of socioeconomic sustainability, such as population or demography (Carli et al., 2013); economic activity; per capita gross domestic product (GDP) or personal income; rates of change in employment, education, and culture (Awaluddin, 2014; Capdevila and Zarlenga, 2015). In other words, good governance in smart cities should ensure the physiological, safety, social, economic, and esteem needs of every individual.


This subcategory specifically addresses environmental sustainability indicators, such as greenhouse gas emissions, rise in GDP, modal split of transport, urban air quality, and municipal solid waste landfilled or incinerated (Perboli et al., 2014; Sivarajah et al., 2014; Roscia et al., 2013).

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