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  • 1. Apart from the various choices of self-reference terms available, Thai is also a pro-drop language (e.g., Hoonchamlong 1991; Phimsawat 2011). Pronouns or other self-reference terms can be omitted in any context where the identity of the speaker can be retrieved pragmatically. Pro-drop is not the focus of the present study. However, it could be interesting in future research to investigate the relationship, if any, between the uses of overt versus dropped pronouns and speaker gender.
  • 2. The word five in Thai is /ha:/. The pronunciation is similar to the laughing sound. The figure “5” is commonly used to represent this laughing sound in informal writing, especially on the Internet.
  • 3. Phi is a kin term meaning ‘older sibling.’


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