Processes of Believing: The Acquisition, Maintenance, and Change in Creditions

Introduction: What We Do Not Know About Believing - Approaching a New Scientific Hot SpotBelief: Between Crucial Importance and NeglectThe Crucial Importance of BeliefBelief: Over-Complex and Scientifically IsolatedBelief: Interwoven with ReligionBelief: A Strange and Seemingly Unattractive PhenomenonBelief as a New Hot SpotNeglect of Belief: A MeanderThe Case Against the Underestimation of the Relevance of BeliefCrossroads: From Belief to BelievingBelieving as ProcessCredition as a Normal Process of BelievingThe Chapters of the BookI. IntroductionII. Psychology and NeuroscienceIII. PhilosophyIV. Theology, Religious Studies, and AnthropologyV. Social SciencesVI. Natural and Computer SciencesConclusionReferencesCredition: From the Question of Belief to the Question of BelievingBelief as a Complex and Ill-defined PhenomenonProblematic Aspects of BeliefConceptual Incompatibility of Overlapping FieldsDominance of “Belief” as a Noun“Religious Belief” as a Prime Example of the “Belief-as-Noun” ProblemChange to Credition: From Static Belief to the Process of BelievingSignals of the Need for a Change in Perspective - The Path to CreditionIllusion of an Easy ChangeFocus on Process and Process PhilosophyFocus on “Normal” Processes of BelievingClaims, Interdisciplinary Challenges, and Open QuestionsCredition: Model Building and TerminologyTowards a Model of the Believing Process (Credition): Origin and Basic AssumptionsPsychological View on Religious ExperiencesRelations Between Credition, Emotion, and CognitionBab: Bridging the Gap Between What We Know and Lack of TerminologyThe Term “Bab”Characteristics of “Babs”Blob: The Subliminal Aspect of “Babs”Credition: A Model of the Process of Normal BelievingTheoretical Challenges for a Model of Creditive ProcessesBab as Basic Unit of a Creditive ProcessBab-Blob-ConfigurationCredition: Poly-functionality of a Believing ProcessEnclosure FunctionConverter FunctionStabilizer FunctionModulator FunctionConclusionReferencesII Psychology and NeuroscienceBelieving, Remembering, and Imagining: The Roots and Fruits of Meanings Made and RemadeStrange Ways in Which Humans WorkWe Are Left with QuestionsEvolutionary Development of Meaning Making Is Foundational to BelievingPerceptual CapabilitiesLearningIntuitingImplementingRememberingImaginingConclusionReferencesConnection Between Scripts Embedding Motor Schemes and Decision MakingBasic Elements of CodificationThe Human Brain and Symbolic SystemsThree Levels of ActionThe Mental Organization and CodificationCreditionConclusionReferencesBeliefs and Believing as Possible Targets for Neuroscientific ResearchIntroductionBelief Formation Grounded in PerceptionRole of Beliefs for Decision MakingRole of Beliefs to Cope with the FutureReferencesNeurobiological Factors Underlying Attachment and Trust in the Believing ProcessIntroductionSocial NeuroscienceBelieving - In What?Neurobiological GroundsBridging Neurobiological Grounds to Processes of BelievingDiscussionReferencesNew Concepts on the Motor System: Implications for Emotions and CreditionIntroductionThe Mirror Neuron System in the MonkeyThe Mirror Neuron System in HumansThe Mirror Neuron System and the Understanding of IntentionsMirror Mechanisms for EmotionsConclusion: Implications for (and from) the Theory of CreditionReferencesNeural Underpinnings of the Human Belief SystemIntroductionMoral BeliefsLegal Beliefs and PunishmentsPolitical BeliefsReligious BeliefsConclusionsFuture Directions/Main Outstanding QuestionsReferencesBelieving in the Effectiveness of Treatment: From Placebo to Credition and BackIntroductionWhat Is the Placebo Effect?A Short History of Placebo ResearchMotivations to Study the Placebo EffectPsychological and Neurobiological Mechanisms of Placebo EffectsExpectationsLearning ProcessesPositive Shift in EmotionsIs There a “Placebo Responder Personality"?Neurobiological Mechanisms of Placebo EffectsThe Dynamics of Treatment ExpectationsPlacebo Effects and the Framework of CreditionExpectationThe Role of ConsciousnessNeuroimaging StudiesConclusionsReferencesThe Power to Live with Disasters: Adaptive Believing Processes of the Self and WorldIntroductionThe Factors of the Power to Live as Adaptive Believing ProcessesAdaptive Belief Organization at the Face of Adversity (Enclosure Function)Problem-SolvingEmotion RegulationInterpersonal Behavioral Facility (Converter Function)AltruismLeadershipBelief Protection Against the Value Disturbance (Stabilizer Function)StubbornnessSelf-TranscendenceEnvironmental Maintenance (to Optimize the Modulator Function)Active Well-BeingEtiquetteDiscussion on the MapTowards Neurocognitive ModelsConclusionReferencesBelief and Belief Formation: Insights from DelusionsIntroductionStudying DelusionsStages of Belief FormationPrecursorThe Search for MeaningCandidate Belief EvaluationAccepting or Holding the BeliefConsequential Effects of Holding the BeliefConclusionReferencesFunctional and Dysfunctional Religious/ Spiritual Beliefs in Psychotic DisordersA Bio-Psycho-Socio-Spiritual Model of Health and DiseaseReligious/Spiritual Beliefs and Psychosis - Two Sides of a Coin?A Multidimensional Approach for the Assessment of Religious/Spiritual BeliefsMagical Thinking as an Indicator of SchizotypyThe Relationship between Religious/Spiritual Beliefs, Magical Thinking and Personality FunctioningThe Function of Religious/Spiritual Beliefs in Psychotic PatientsReferencesIII PhilosophyThe Theory of Credition and Philosophical Accounts of Belief: Looking for Common GroundBelief and KnowledgeBelief and ReligionFrom Belief to Believing: The Theory of Credition and Philosophical Accounts of BeliefReferencesCredition and JustificationIntroductionWhat Is Belief?What Is Faith?What Is a Process?What Is Rationality?What Is Justified Belief?Modus Operandi for an Epistemic Theory of Justified BeliefModus Operandi for a Non-epistemic Theory of Justified BeliefIn ConclusionReferencesHume on the Origins of Religious BeliefHume’s The Natural History of Religion and the Modern Study of ReligionAn Overview of Hume’s Account of the Causes of Religious BeliefThe Bearings of Neuroscientific Credition Research on Hume’s AccountReferencesThe Structure of Credition in Whitehead’s Metaphysics of ExperienceCredition and PropositionProposition and ReligionSymbolization of Religious ExperienceConclusionReferencesBrain and Self - A Neurophilosophical AccountBackground: Conceptual Determination of the Self in PhilosophyBackground: Empirical Investigation of the Self in NeurosciencePhilosophical Concepts: Mental SelfPhilosophical Concepts: From the Metaphysical to the Empirical SelfPhilosophical Concepts: Minimal SelfPhilosophical Concepts: Social SelfNeuroscientific Findings: Spatial Patterns of Neural Activity During Self-Specific StimuliNeuroscientific Findings: Temporal Patterns of Neural Activity During Self-Specific StimuliNeuroscientific Findings Ic: Social Patterns of Neural Activity During Self-ReferenceNeurophilosophical Discussion: Different Forms of SpecificityNeurophilosophical Discussion: Neuronal Specificity of Midline RegionsNeurophilosophical Discussion: Psychological and Experimental SpecificityNeurophilosophical Discussion: Self-Specificity and Other FunctionsNeurophilosphical Discussion: Self, Belief and ValuationReferencesCreditions and Self-Identity: Embodiment Between Actions and (Life) DecisionsIntroductionElements of a Credition TheoryFrom Actions to BeliefsBeliefs and Self-IdentityConclusion: Credition Theory and Its PromiseReferencesA Process Pragmatist Heuristics of BelievingIntroductionReligion in Classical GreecePlato’s Divided LineWilliam James’ Process Pragmatism A Summary of Contingent ClaimsReferencesIV Theology, Religious Studies, and AnthropologyCognition, Emotion, and the Ethics of AuthenticityIntroductionBeliefs and JudgmentsReason (Cognition) and Flow (Emotion)Reason and ComplexityThe Pre-thematic and the Linguistic: Towards a Structure of ConvergenceA Theological AfterwordConclusionReferencesRecent Scientific Explanations of Religious Beliefs: A Systematic AccountIntroductionResults from a First Systematic ReviewAbout Theoretical Frames and MethodsAbout Results and ContentsAbout Evidence LevelsReviewing the State of Research: An Open PanoramaReligious Beliefs and General Beliefs: The Pars Pro Toto Problem?ReferencesSoul and Body According to “De Fide Orthodoxa” of St. John DamasceneTheological Thinking and the Complexity of the Process of BelievingThe Universal Character of Faith - Structures/CreditionsThe Cognitive and Emotional Character of FaithThe Cognitive Dimension of FaithThe Emotional Dimension of FaithThe Soul - Body ComplementarityReferencesMusic as a Medium of Personal Motion and Belief: Some Phenomenological ReflectionsAt the Beginning - Where Does Music Come from?What Happens if Someone Is Singing, Playing Music or Listening to Music?Music and Brain, Music and BodySinging - Medicine Against Fear and Medium of Belief in Ritual ContextsArtificial Music - Transcending Consciousness and Imagining a Different WorldMusic and ‘Creditions’ReferencesV Social SciencesReconciliation After a Protracted Violent Conflict: Do Believing Processes Play a Role, and Which One? A Research AgendaIntroduction: Problems of Re-construction and Reconciliation After Violent ConflictThree Conceptulizations of “Ethnicity” and the Pitfalls of Political and Legal TheoryConclusionReferencesUnderstanding Young People’s Worldview A Practical Example of How to Work with the Model of CreditionThe Problem with BeliefsFramework of the Credition TheoryIntention of ResearchProcedureSamplingWorking Process of Bab-Configuration and Enclosure ProcessDefinition of the ClumBab-ConfigurationMightinessEveryday Questions and Formulation of the ClumsThe Results and Their PresentationConcluding RemarksReferencesApproaching Another Black Box: Credition in EconomicsIntroduction and OverviewBeliefs, Trust and Credition in the History of Economic ThoughtPure Economics: Full Information “Without Credition”Credit Markets, Labor Exchange and the Economics of Institutional ChangeConclusionReferencesCredition in Business - Innovations with CrowdbusinessRational Decision Making vs. Disruptive InnovationsThe Role of Emotions and Creditions - The Credition Theory in a NutshellApplying Credition Theory in Innovation ManagementA Tool Supporting the Communication of Creditions in Innovation Management ProcessesA New Perspective - Innovation, Credition and the CrowdA Framework for CrowdbusinessConclusion - Credition in CrowdbusinessReferencesVI Natural and Computer SciencesCreditions and Modern Computer ScienceIntroductionExamplesImage DenoisingSupervised LearningBayes FormulaSummaryReferencesPublic and Personal Causations of CreditionsIntroductionPublic Causes of Creditions and Formal LanguagesPersonal Creditions and Formal LanguagesProcedural PluralismFormal PluralismConsistent SystemsInteraction Between Public and Personal CreditionsOpen Road to Personal BeliefsIneffable SemanticsPersonal Motions and Public EmotionsBelief in Motions and Symbolic Personal LanguageThe Emotions and the Public Formal Beliefs and LanguageConclusion and Future WorkReferencesWave-Particle Duality and Quantity-Quality Complementarity in Natural and Human Sciences: Implications for Credition ResearchIntroductionBasic Terms, Laws, and PrinciplesEquilibrium vs. Dissipative StructuresInformationEnergyEntropyGnergyDefinitionExperimental EvidenceThe Gnergy Principle of Organization (GPO)Gnergy, Practopoiesis, and ITR (Irreducibole Triadic Relation)Gnergy and the Concept of Babs in the Credition TheoryPeircean SemioticsThe Peircean Sign and the Irreducible Triadic Relation (ITR)Possible Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Peirce’s Hypostatic AbstractionCategory TheoryWhat Is a Category?The ur-Cateogry and Its Diagrammatic RepresentationWhat Is a Functor?Complementarity vs. SupplementarityConclusionReferencesInteroception and Gut Feelings: Unconscious Body Signals’ Impact on Brain Function, Behavior and Belief ProcessesIntroductionThe Gut-Brain AxisInteroceptionInteroception, Gut Feelings and Belief ProcessesReferencesDecision-Making and Credition Under a Microbial PerspectiveThe Healthy MicrobiomeBasic Insights into the Human MicrobiomeOur Eating and Sexual Behavior Is Influenced by the Gut MicrobiomeThe Unbalanced MicrobiomeDepression and the Role of the MicrobiomeSocial Anxiety Disorders and the Role of the MicrobiomeChronic Diseases and the Role of the MicrobiomeDecision-Making and Credition Under Microbiome InfluenceReferencesStructuring CreditionTransformation of How We Talk: From Belief to the Process of BelievingConsequences of the TransformationConceptual or Functional Explanation of the Believing ProcessBridgingTranslationTransferProcess of Believing: Theory and ModelModel of the Believing ProcessTheory of the Believing ProcessApplication of the ModelFuture PerspectivesReferences
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