Integrity tests, personality inventories and in-basket tasks are just a few devices that can be used in the selection process. These methods can be both complex and expensive. Selection interviews, however, can offer a low-cost method that can achieve similar ends when the process is well designed and well implemented. Practitioners who opt for a multifaceted interview approach with varied interview formats and multiple judges should ultimately feel confident that improved recruitment decisions can be achieved.
Akert, R. M., & Panter, A. T. (1988). Extraversion and the ability to decode nonverbal communication. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 965-972.
Barber, A. E., Hollenbeck, J. R., Tower, S. L., & Phillips, J. M. (1994). The effects of interview focus on recruitment effectiveness: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 886-896.
Baumle, A. K. (2013). The demography of sexuality and the labor market. In A. K. Baumle (Ed.), International Handbook on the Demography of Sexuality (pp. 243-256). New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Benson P., Buckley M., & Hall S. (1988). The impact of rating scale format on rater accuracy: An evaluation of the mixed standard scale. Journal of Management, 14(3), 415-423.
Berscheid, E., & Walster, E. H. (1974). Physical attractiveness. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 7). New York: Academic Press.
Blackman, M. C. (2002a). Personality judgment and the utility of the unstructured employment interview. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 24(3), 240-249.
Blackman, M. C. (2002b). The employment interview via the telephone: Are we sacrificing accurate personality judgments for cost efficiency? Journal of Research in Personality, 36(3), 208-223.
Blackman, M. C. (2006). Using what we know about personality to hire the ideal colleague. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 43, 27-31.
Blackman, M. C. (2008). The effective interview. In S. Cartwright & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Personnel Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Blackman, M. C., & Funder, D. C. (1998). The effect of information on the accuracy and consensus of personality judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 34, 164-181.
Blackman, M. C., & Funder, D. C. (2002). Effective Interview practices for accurately assessing counterproductive traits. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10(1-2), 109-116.
Breecher, E., Bragger, J., & Kutcher, E. (2006). The structured interview: Reducing biases toward job applicants with physical disabilities. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 18, 155-170.
Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait- multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.
Campion, M., Palmer, D., & Campion, J. (1997). A review of structure in the selection interview. Personnel Psychology, 50, 655-702.
Campion, M., Pursell, E., & Brown, B. (1988). Structured interviewing: Raising the psychometric properties of the employment interview. Personnel Psychology, 41, 25-42.
Carson, K. D., Carson, P. P., Fontenot, G., & Burdin, J. J. (2005). Structured interview questions for selecting productive, emotionally mature, and helpful employees. The Health Care Manager, 24(3), 209-215.
Cash, T. F., Gillen, B., & Burns, B. S. (1977). Sexism and ‘beautyism’ in personnel consultant decision making. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 301-310.
Chapman, D. S., & Rowe, P. M. (2002). The influence of videoconferencing technology and interview structure on the recruiting function of the employment interview a field experiment. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 185-197.
Chen, C. C., Yang, I. W., & Lin, W. (2010). Applicant impression management in job interview: The moderating role of interviewer affectivity. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(3), 739-757.
Christiansen, N. D., Wolcott-Burnam, S., & Janovics, J. E. (2005). The good judge revisited: Individual differences in the accuracy of personality judgments. Human Performance, 18, 123-149.
Cloyd, L. (1977). Effect of acquaintanceship on accuracy ofperson perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 44, 819-826.
Cogger, J. W. (1982). Are you a skilled interviewer? Personnel Journal, 61, 840-843.
Colvin, C. R. (1993a). Childhood antecedents of young-adult judgability. Journal of Personality, 61, 611-635.
Colvin, C. R. (1993b). Judgable people: Personality, behavior, and competing explanations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 861-873.
Colvin, C. R., & Funder, D. C. (1991). Predicting personality and behavior: A boundary on the acquaintanceship effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 884-894.
Conway, J., Jako, R., & Goodman D. (1995). A meta-analysis of interrater and internal consistency reliability of selection interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 565-579.
Conway, J. M., & Peneno, G. M. (1999). Comparing structured interview question types: Construct validity and applicant reactions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 13(4), 485-506.
Coupland N., & Bishop, H. (2007). Ideologised values for British accents. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 11(1), 74-93.
Cronshaw, S. F., & Wiesner, W. H. (1989). The validity of the employment interview: Models from research and practice. In R.W. Eder & G. R. Ferris (Eds.), The Employment Interview: Theory, Research, and Practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Crosteau, J. M. (1996). Research on the work experience of lesbian, gay and bisexual people: An integrative review of methodology and findings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 195-209.
Dana, J., Dawes, R., & Peterson, N. (2013). Belief in the unstructured interview: The persistence of an illusion. Judgment and Decision Making, 8(5), 512-520.
Day, D. V., & Sulsky, L. M. (1995). Effects of frame-of-reference training and information configuration on memory organization and rating accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 158-167.
DeGroot, T., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1999). Why visual and vocal cues can affect interviewers’ judgments and predict job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(6), 986-993.
Dennis, P. M. (1984). The Edison test. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 20(1), 23-37.
Deprez-Sims, A., & Morris, S. B. (2013). The effect of non-native accents on the evaluation of applicants during an employment interview: The development of a path model. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21(4), 355-367.
Dipboye, R. L. (1982). Self-fulfilling prophecies in the selection-recruitment interview. Academy of Management Review, 7(4), 579-586.
Dipboye, R. L., Avery, R. D., & Terprestra, D. E. (1977). Sex and physical attractiveness of raters and applicants as determinants of resume evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 288-294.
Dipboye, R. L., & Colella, A. (2005). The dilemmas of workplace discrimination. In R. L. Dipboye & A. Colella (Eds.), Discrimination at Work: The Psychological and Organizational Bases (pp. 17-43). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dipboye, R. L., Gaugler, B. B., & Hayes, T. L. (1997). The validity of unstructured panel interviews: More than meets the eye? Journal of Business and Psychology, 16, 35-49.
Dipboye, R. L., Macan, T., & Shahani-Denning, C. (2012). The selection interview from the interviewer and applicant perspectives: Can’t have one without the other. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Personnel Assessment and Selection (pp. 323-352). New York: Oxford University Press.
Farago, B. E., Zide, J. S., & Shahani-Denning, C. (2013). Selection interviews: Role of interviewer warmth, interview structure, and interview outcome in applicants’ perceptions of organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 65(3), 224-239.
Friedman, B., & Cornelius, E. (1976). Effect of rater participation in scale construction on the psychometric characteristics of two rating scale formats. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1(2), 210-216.
Funder, D. C. (1995). On the accuracy of personality judgment: A realistic approach. Psychological Review 102(4), 652-670.
Funder, D. C., & Colvin, C. R. (1988). Friends and strangers: Acquaintanceship, agreement, and the accuracy of personality judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 149-158.
Funder, D. C., & Colvin, C. R. (1991). Explorations in behavioral consistency: Properties of persons, situations and behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 773-794.
Funder, D. C., & Dobroth, K. M. (1987). Differences between traits: Properties associated with interjudge agreement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(2), 409-418.
Gatewood, G. L., Lahiff, J., Deter, R., & Hargrove, L. (1989). The effects of training on the behaviors of the selection interview. Journal of Business Communication, 21(6), 17-31.
Gilfford, R., Ng, C. F., & Wilkinson, M. (1985). Nonverbal cues in the employment interview: Links between applicant qualities and interview judgments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(4), 729-736.
Gilmore D., Beehr T., & Love, K. (1986) Effects of applicant sex, applicant physical attractiveness, type of rater and type of job on interview decisions. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59(2), 103-109.
Hamdani, M. R., Valcea, S., & Buckley, M. R. (2014). The relentless pursuit of construct validity in the design of employment interviews. Human Resource Management Review, 24(2), 160-176.
Hansen, K., Rakic, T., & Steffens, M. (2014). When actions speak louder than words: Preventing discrimination of nonstandard speakers. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 33(1), 68-77.
Hayes, T., & Macan, T. (1997). Comparison of the factors influencing interviewer hiring decisions for applicants with and those without disabilities. Journal of Business and Psychology, 11(3), 357-371.
Hollandsworth, Jr., J. G. (1979). Relative contributions of verbal, articulate, and nonverbal communication to employment decisions in the job interview setting. Personnel Psychology, 32, 359-367.
Hosoda, M., Stone-Romero, E. F., & Coats, G. (2003). The effects of physical attractiveness on job- related outcomes: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Personnel Psychology, 56(2), 431-462.
Huffcutt, A. I., Culbertson, S. S., & Weyhrauch, W. S. (2013). Employment interview reliability: New meta-analytic estimates by structure and format. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21(3), 264-276.
Janz, T. (1989). The patterned behavior description interview: The best prophet of the future is the past. In R.W. Eder & G.R. Ferris (Eds.), The Employment Interview: Theory Research and Practice (pp. 158-168). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Kuo, C., & Chang, S. (2011). The employment interview structure: A field study of perceived procedural justice and applicant reactions. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 53(1), 97-114.
Kutcher, E. J., & Bragger, J. (2004). Selection interviews of overweight job applicants: Can structure reduce the bias? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(10), 1993-2022.
Latham, G. P. (1989). The reliability, validity and practicality of the situational interview. In R. W. Eder & G. R. Ferris (Eds.), The Employment Interview: Theory Research and Practice (pp. 169-182). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Latham, G., & Seijts, G. (1997). The effect of appraisal instrument on managerial perceptions of fairness and satisfaction with appraisals from their peers. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 29(4), 275-282.
Levashina, J. H., Christopher, J., Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2014). The structured employment interview. Narrative and quantitative: Review of the research literature. Personnel Psychology, 67, 241-293.
Madera, J. M. (2008). Reactions to stigmas in the employment interview: An eye tracking investigation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 69(4-B), p. 2662.
McColl, R., & Truong, Y. (2013). The effects of facial attractiveness and gender on customer evaluations during a web-video sales encounter. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 33(1), 117-128.
McDaniel, M. A., Whetzel, D. L., Schmidt, F. L., & Mauer, S. (1994). The validity of employment interviews: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 599-616.
McFarland, L. A., Ryan, A. M., & Kriska, S. D. (2002). Field study investigation of applicant use of influence tactics in a selection interview. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 136(A), 383-398.
McLarney, A. R. (2003). Trait predictors of the good judge: Three proposed underlying mediators. Dissertation. Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64(3-B), 1552.
Miceli, N. (1997). An investigation of bias toward persons with disabilities in employment selection decisions. Dissertation. Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 57(8-A), 3580.
Motowidlo, S., Carter, G., Vaughan, M., Dunnette, M. D., Tippins, N., Werner, S., & Burnett, J. R. (1992). Studies of the structured behavioral interview. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(5), 571-587.
Nordstrom, C. R., Huffaker, B. J., & Williams, K. B. (1998). When physical disabilities are not liabilities: The role of applicant and interviewer characteristics on employment interview outcomes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 283-306.
O’Brien K., Latner J., Halberstad J., Hunter J., Anderson J., & Caputi P. (2008). Do antifat attitudes predict antifat behaviors? Obesity, 16(12), 87-92.
O’Cinneide, C. (2011). The uncertain foundations of contemporary anti-discrimination law. International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 11(1-2), 7-28.
Ones, D. S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F. (1993). Comprehensive meta-analysis of integrity test validities; Findings and implications for personnel selection and theories of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 679-703.
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.
Palmer, D. K., Campion, M. A., & Green, P. C. (1999). Interviewer training for both interviewer and applicant. In R. W. Eder & M. M. Harris (Eds.), The Employment Interview Handbook, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Paulhus, D. B., & Bruce, M. N. (1992). The effect of acquaintanceship on the validity of personality impressions: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 816-824.
Paunonen, S. V., & Jackson, D. N. (1988). Accuracy of interviewers and students in identifying the personality characteristics of personnel managers and computer programmers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31, 26-36.
Pingitore, R., Dugoni, B. L., Tindale, R. S., & Spring, B. (1994). Bias against overweight job applicants in a simulated employment interview. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(6), 909-917.
Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Mishra, P. (2011). Effects of organizational citizenship behaviors on selection decisions in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(2), 310-326.
Prusha, C. (2014). Effectiveness of panel and individual interviews in detection of counterproductive behavior. Master’s thesis, California State University, Fullerton.
Pulakos, E. D., & Schmitt, N. (1995). Experience-based and situational interview questions: Studies of validity. Personnel Psychology, 48(2), 289-308.
Purkiss, S. L. S., Perrewe, P. L., Gillespie, T. L., Mayes, B. T., & Ferris, G. R. (2006). Implicit sources of bias in employment interview judgments and decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 101, 152-167.
Rand, T. M., & Wexley, K. N. (1975). Demonstration of the effect ‘similar to me’ in simulated employment interviews. Psychological Reports, 36, 535-544.
Reid, London House. (2007). Abbreviated Reid Report. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson.
Report from the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (2013). IGLA.org.
Roehling, M. V. (1999). Weight-based discrimination in employment: Psychological and legal aspects. Personnel Psychology, 52, 969-1016.
Rouline, N., Bangerter, A. & Yerly, E. (2011). The uniqueness effect in selection interviews. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 10(1), pp. 43-47.
Rynes, S. L. (1989). The employment interview as a recruitment device. In R. Eder & G. Ferris, (Eds.), The Employment Interview: Theory, Research and Practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Sacco, J. M., Scheu, C. R., Ryan, A. M., & Schmitt, N. (2003). An investigation of race and sex similarity effects in interviews: A multilevel approach to relational demography. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 852-865.
Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262-274.
Sear, G. J., Zhang, H., Wiesner, W. H., Hackett, R. D., & Yuan, Y. (2013). A comparative assessment of video conference and face-to-face employment interviews. Management Decision, 51(8), 1733-1752.
Sinha, R., Oswald, F., Imus, A., & Schmitt N. (2011). Criterion-focused approach to reducing adverse impact in college admissions. Applied Measurement In Education, 24(2), 137-161.
Smith, P. C., & Kendall, L. M. (1963). Retranslation ofexpectations: An approach to the construction of unambiguous anchors to rating scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47, 149-155.
Straus, S. G., Miles, J. A., & Levesque, L. L. (2001). The effects of videoconference, telephone, and face-to-face media on interviewer and applicant judgments in employment interviews. Journal of Management, 27, 363-381.
Taylor, P. J., & Small, B. (2002). Asking applicants what they would do versus what they did do: A meta-analytic comparison of situational and past behavior employment interview questions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, 277-294.
Tews, M. J., Stafford, K., & Shu, J. (2009). Beauty revisited: The impact of attractiveness, ability and personality in the assessment of employment suitability. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 17, 92-100.
Townsend, R. J., Bacigalupi, S. C., & Blackman, M. C. (2007). The accuracy oflay integrity assessments in simulated employment interviews. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 540-557.
Tran, T., & Blackman, M. C. (2006). The dynamics and validity of the group selection interview. Journal of Social Psychology, 146(2), 183-201.
Ulrich, L., & Trumbo, D. (1965). The selection interview since 1949. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 100-116.
Van Hoye, G., & Lievens, F. (2003). The effects of sexual orientation on hirability ratings: An experimental study. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(1), 15-30.
Wade, K. J., & Kinicki, A. J. (1997). Subjective applicant qualifications and interpersonal attraction as mediators within a process model of interview selection decisions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 23-40.
Wexley, K., Sanders, R., & Yukel, G. (1973). Training interviewers to eliminate contrast effects in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(3), 233-236.
Zhang Y., Kong F., Zhong Y., & Kou, H. (2014). Personality manipulations: Do they modulate facial attractiveness ratings? Personality and Individual Differences, 70, 80-84.