Professional standards, legal guidelines and the ethical obligations of psychologists (see Table 13.1) require that employment tests are valid (i.e., are accurate predictors of important job outcomes). Moreover, employers who are cost-sensitive or need capable employees want selection programs that identify both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ candidates (i.e., those who are likely to perform well and those who are not, those who are likely to turnover and those who are not, those who are likely to be successful in training and those who are not).

Despite the importance of ensuring validity, online testing raises a number of issues related to establishing the validity of a testing procedure. Perhaps the greatest threat to the validity of UIT is the reliability of the score. Because some form of cheating is possible,

Table 13.1 Examples of professional requirements, legal guidelines, and ethical standards related to testing.

Professional Guidelines

AERA, APA, & NCME. (2014). Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.

SIOP. (2003). Principles for the Use and Validation of Personnel Selection Procedures.

European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations. (2013). EFPA Review Model for the Description and Evaluation of Psychological and Educational Tests Version 4.2.6.

ISO. (2011). ISO-10667-2 Assessment Service Delivery - Procedures and Methods to Assess People in

Work and Organizational Settings.

International Test Commission. (2001). International Guidelines for Test Use.

International Test Commission. (2005). International Guidelines on Test Adaptation.

Legal Guidelines

EEOC. (1978). Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Standards.

Ethical Guidelines

American Psychological Association. (2010). APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

International Task Force on Assessment Center Guidelines. (2009). Guidelines and Ethical

Considerations for Assessment Center Operations.

test users do not know how reliable any specific score is. To the extent that reliability is compromised, validity too is limited. Yet, UIT is not the only testing process related to technology that generates concerns regarding validity. When a test user switches from one form of technology (e.g., desktop computers to mobile devices), the test user cannot assume that the validity of the test is unchanged. Similarly, the assumption that validity exists regardless of where the test is used or which language is used for administration may not always be the case. In addition, when a test user implements a selection procedure that does not resemble a traditional test (e.g., games, credit checks, data from social media), the test user is still responsible for accumulating evidence to support the use of the procedure for a particular population in the organization.

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