Integrating the Dynamic Models of Turnover
As this review of more than five decades of research emphasizes, turnover is a complex phenomenon. Theorists and researchers have searched for the affective, attitudinal and cognitive antecedents of turnover. They have proposed gradual and rapid pathways to
Figure 21.2 An integrated framework of the antecedents of turnover.
quitting. They have explored individual differences and context-specific factors that trigger turnover. And they have identified events inside and outside of work that can cause someone to leave an organization.
The models reviewed above provide key insights into various factors that promote retention and cause turnover. But this review raises an important question: which model is most accurate? Each model has received ample empirical support, so choosing one over another seems limiting and unjustifiable. Fortunately, making such a choice is not necessary because each model approaches turnover in a different way.
In this section we integrate the key factors of these different approaches in a unifying understanding of the dynamic nature of turnover, based on five common factors (see Figure 21.3), as well as the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), the unfolding model (Lee & Mitchell, 1994) and affective events theory (AET; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996).