Although substantial literatures have developed over time on how organizational culture and climate are related to turnover, the overlap between the culture and climate literatures leaves something to be desired. There are a number of areas where research is still needed to better understand the interrelationships among culture, climate and turnover. One area that comes to the fore is examining more complex models. This could include studying the effects of culture and climate together, as well as studying multiple climates simultaneously. It could also include exploring the mechanisms and boundary conditions of culture and climate on turnover. Another area that could use additional work involves fit and turnover. Little work has been done on organizational climate and fit, but even the work on culture and fit could be expanded to clarify the areas of culture where fit is more important or to incorporate different types of fit by considering ideal versus preferred cultures and climates in order to add to our understanding of turnover. Finally, most of the research we examined focuses on how culture and climate impact whether employees leave the organization or not. We found little evidence, if any, of research that takes into account the different reasons employees leave. For instance, the culture and climate predictors of turnover may be different for employees who leave for better career opportunities from those who leave because they are unhappy with their current organization. We hope this chapter stimulates research in these areas and look forward to seeing the findings of such research.

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