Ordinals

Ordinals are formed with -tha- (*-th2o-), -ma- (*-mo-), and -(t)iya-; mostly traced back to PII: pra-tha-ma- ‘1st’; dvi-tTya-‘2nd’; trt-iya-‘3rd’; tur-iya- < *kwtur-ih2o- (RV+) or catur-tha- (AV+) ‘4th’; pak-tha- (RV) or panca-ma- (AV+) ‘5th’; sas-tha- (AV+) ‘6th’; sapta-tha- (RV), sapta-tha- (KSp), or sapta-ma- (AV+) ‘7th’, asta-ma- ‘8th’, nava-ma- ‘9th’, dasa-ma- ’10th’, also katithas cid ‘the so-and-so maniest’. From ‘11th’: eka-dasa-, dva-d° (YSm+), trayo-d° (AV+), etc., distinguished from the cardinals with their oxytone; only later ekadasa-ma- etc. ‘20th’ to ‘50th’ are built with -sa-: YSm+ trayo-vimsa- ‘23rd’, dva- pancasa- ‘52nd’, also trimsat-tama- ‘30th’ (SB); ‘60th’ to ‘90th’ with -a-: eka-sasta- ‘61st’ SB; from ‘100’ with -tama-: ekasata-tama- ‘101st’ SB; f. forms: caturthi-, pancami, saptathi-, and otherwise with -a- or -a-. ekadasa-, trayodasa-, astavimsa-, ekasasta- etc. mean homonymously ‘11th...’ and ‘consisting of 11...’ (Sommer-compounds).

 
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