Number words

Cardinals, ordinals, and other number words are attested in YAv. (here unmarked), while OAv. has hardly any. In OPers., few numerals are spelled out, but several are found in Elamite texts. The cardinals ‘three’ and ‘four’ have archaic fem. forms with the suffix *-hr-/-sr-.

Cardinals

OAv. has only ‘one’, ‘ten’, and ‘both’.

  • 1: Av. aeuua-, OPers. aiva-: masc. YAv. acc. aoim, oim, oiium, etc., instr. Av. aeuua,, YAv. gen. m. aeuuahe, loc. m. aeuuahmi; - fem. nom. aeuua, acc. aeuuqm, instr. aeuua- iia°, gen. aeuuarjha.
  • 2: *duua-, *duui- (bi° in compounds): duua (duua): m. duua, f./n. duiie, duuae°; dat.-abl.-instr. m. duuae'biia, gen. m. duuaiia.

‘Both’: OAv., OPers. uba, YAv. uua (uua), f./n. nom.-acc. OAv. ube, YAv. uiie < *uu1e, instr.-dat.-abl. OAv. uboibiia, YAv. uuaeibiia (FO 2b.41 uboiia may belong here or to the loc.), gen. uuaiia(s°) (FO), loc. OAv. uboiio, YAv. uuaiio (FO); - OPers. gen.- dat. pl. ubanam. - Indecl. YAv. uuaem ‘both’ < *ufiaiam.

  • 3: 6ri- (YAv. 6ri°): nom. m. draiio, 6raiias°, acc. m. 6ris, gen. draiiqm, dat.-abl. dribiio, nom. f. tisro, gen. tisrqm, tisranqm, n. 6ri.
  • 4: ca6par-/catur- (YAv. ca6ru°): nom. m. ca6paro, ca6paras°, acc. catura, gen. catu- rqm, nom./acc. f. catayro, n. catura.
  • 5-10: panca, xsuuas, hapta, asta, nauua, dasa, gen. pancanqm, nauuanqm, dasanqm.
  • 11-19: duua.dasa, pancadasa-, xsuuas.dasa-.
  • 20-50: compounded with -sant-/-sat-: visqs°, visa iti; Orisqs, Orisatsm, gen. Orisata- nqm; caOparssatam, pancasatsm, instr. pancasatbis0.
  • 60-90: fem. ti-stems: xsuuasti-, haptaiti-, astaiti-, nauuaiti-.
  • 100, 1000: neut. a-stems: sata-, hazayra-: sg. satsm, hazayrsm, du. duiie sa'te, duiie hazayre, pl. tisro sata ‘300’, caOfiaro sata ‘400’, nauua hazayra ‘9000’, etc.

Compounded numerals: pancaca visa'd ‘25’, Oraiiasca Orisqsca ‘33’, pancaca hap- ta'ti- ‘75’, nauuaca nauuaiti ‘99’; duiie nauuaiti ‘180’, nauuaca ... nauuaitTsca nauuaca sata nauuaca hazayra nauuasSsca baeuuqn ‘9 + 90 + 900 + 9000 + 9 times 10,000 = 99,999'.

 
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