Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia: Progress, Challenges, and Issues

Overview and Rationale of StudyObjective of the BookTarget ReadersAbout the ContributorsStructure of the BookA: Disaster Risk Governance from National to Local Level and Its Integration into Development SectorsB: Roles of Different Actors for DRRC: Emerging Issues in DRR Research and PracticeD: Measuring Hazards, Risks and Community ResilienceConclusionReferencesI Disaster Risk Governance from National to Local Level and Its Integration into Development SectorsA Review of Disaster Trend and Disaster Risk Governance in Indonesia: 1900-2015IntroductionThe EM-DAT DatabaseEvents and Trends of in Indonesia Since 1900Number of Disaster E-ventsNumber of People Killed by DisastersNumber of People Affected by DisastersDamages and Losses Caused by DisastersEvolution of Institutional Responses to Major Disasters Caused by Natural HazardsTime Period Before 1945: Indonesia Under Dutch ColonialismTime Period After Indonesian Independence 1945-1966 Under President SukarnoTime Period Between 1967 and 1998 Under President SuhartoTime Period Between 1998 and 2004: The Reform Era of Three Presidents of Habibie, Wahid and SoekarnoputriTime Period Between 2004 and 2014 Under President YudhoyonoTime Period from 2014 to Now Under President Joko WidodoConclusionReferencesToward Integrated and Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia: Review of Regulatory Frameworks and Institutional NetworksIntroductionMethodsTheory of Collaborative Governance and NetworkAnalysis and FindingsDRR Regulatory FrameworkAnalysis of DRR RegulationsAnalysis of Other Supporting RegulationsDRR Institutional ArrangementsAnalysis of the National Policy-Based Institutional NetworkAnalysis of Local Institutional FrameworkResults: Need-Gap Analysis and Future Directives for Integrated and Inclusive Disaster Risk ReductionClimate Inclusive DRR (Convergence)Local Government CapacityCommunity ResilienceConclusion and Practical Recommendations for More Integrated, Locally-Based, Community-Focused DRRReferencesDisaster Risk Reduction in PostDecentralisation Indonesia: Institutional Arrangements and ChangesIntroductionTheoretical FrameworkDisasters and ResilienceDecentralisation and PlanningDisaster Governance and Non-state ActorsDecentralisation and Disaster Management in IndonesiaDecentralisationDecentralisation Characteristics and ImplementationDecentralisation ImpactsTransforming Disaster GovernanceThe Evolution of Disaster Management EffortsThe New DM FrameworkOrganizationSharing Responsibilities and AuthorityFinancing Mechanisms of the New DM FrameworkNon-state Actor ParticipationDevelopment and Spatial Planning and DMDiscussion: Weighing the Impacts of Decentralisation and the New DM FrameworkClarityCapacityCivil Society CollaborationConclusionsReferencesDisaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Capacity and Capability of Local Government in IndonesiaIntroductionStIRRRD Districts and their CharacteristicsConceptual and Practical UnderpinningsIndonesian Context for Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Risk ManagementThe Role of Local Government in DRRCapacity and CapabilityDefinitionsMeasuring DRR Capacity and CapabilityLocal Government Self-Assessment Tool for DRR (LG-SAT-DRR)MethodologyAnalysis of ResultsOverall Results: Radar Diagram Trends and Average District ScoresResults for Each CategoryUnderstanding Hazards and RisksRegulationsFundingNetworkingEducation and TrainingCommunity DevelopmentConclusionsReferencesExamining the Adequacy of Legal and Institutional Frameworks of Land and Forest Fire Management from National to Community Levels in IndonesiaIntroductionLand and Forest Fires Risk Management at the National LevelPrevention and Mitigation PhaseLegal FrameworksInstitutional FrameworksEmergency Response PhaseLegal FrameworksInstitutional FrameworksRecovery and Rehabilitation PhaseLegal FrameworksInstitutional FrameworksLand and Forest Fire Risk Management at the Subnational and Community Level: South Sumatera and Central Kalimantan ProvincesSouth Sumatra ProvincesPrevention and Mitigation PhaseEmergency Response PhaseRecovery and Rehabilitation Phase: Government and CommunityCentral Kalimantan ProvincesPrevention and Mitigation PhaseEmergency Response PhaseRecovery and Rehabilitation PhaseConclusionReferences Disaster Education and School Safety Governance after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Indonesia: From National Policy to Local ImplementationIntroductionMethodologyLiterature Review on Disaster Education and School SafetyResultsMapping the Regulations and Policies Related to Disaster Education and School Safety in Indonesia: From National to Local LevelReviewing Implementation of Disaster Education and School Safety at the Local Level in Banda Aceh CityConclusion for All-Schools Implementation of Disaster Education and Safe School: Necessary Policy InstrumentReferencesIntegrating Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation into School Curricula: From National Policy to Local ImplementationIntroductionMethodologyData CollectionResultsIdentification of Topics Related to DRR and CCA in the Indonesian Lower Education CurriculumLesson Plan (RPP/Rancangan Rencana Pembelajaran)Teaching MethodsLearning MaterialLearning AssessmentProgress and Challenges in Integrating DRR into School Curriculum at the Policy LevelProgressChallengesProgress and Potential for Integration at the Implementation Level: Case Study of Chemistry in the High School Level Curriculum in AcehRecommendations for IntegrationSupport for TeachersMaterials for Teaching About DRR and CCAFinancial and Policy SupportConclusionReferencesSpatial Planning, Disaster Risk Reduction, and Climate Change Adaptation Integration in Indonesia: Progress, Challenges, and ApproachIntroductionMethodologySP Processes Related to DRR and CCA in Indonesia: Progress ReviewCurrent Strategies to Integrate DRR and CCA into SP in IndonesiaChallenges of DRR and CCA Integration in Indonesian SPPotential Integration Approach: A Combined Vulnerability and Risk Assessments into SPConclusion and RecommendationsReferencesII Roles of Different Actors for DRR The Role of Local Government in Post-Disaster Road Reconstruction: Assessment of Factors Affecting Local Government Road Maintenance CapacityIntroductionResearch Relevance and RationaleLiterature Review: Road Maintenance in the Post-disaster ContextResearch MethodologyData Collection and AnalysisResults: Factors Affecting Road Maintenance Capacity Following a DisasterSocial Political FactorsLocal Political ConditionsSocio-economic ConditionsConflicts Between AuthoritiesInstitutional FactorsFinancial CapacityHuman Resource CapacityTechnical FactorsRoad DesignTraffic Loading ControlPlant and EquipmentConclusionsReferencesManufacturing Firms’ Adaptations to Floods and Proposal for Integrative Adaptive Regional Development in JakartaIntroductionA Proposed Concept of Integrative Adaptive Regional Development (IARD)Firms’ Decision-Making Under RiskIndividual AdaptationCollective AdaptationIntegrative Adaptive Regional Development (IARD)ResistanceResilienceTransformationCollapseMethodologyGovernments’ Flood Risk Reduction Strategies in JakartaResults and DiscussionFirms’ Exposure to FloodsFirms Main Focus on Individual AdaptationFirms Lack of Engagement in Collective AdaptationApplying the Concept of IARD on JakartaFirms’ Individual Adaptation Primarily Orientate Towards Resistance and ResilienceFirms’ Collective Adaptation Orientate Towards Resistance (with the Danger of Collapse), Resilience and Rarely Towards Signs of TransformationConclusionReferencesMedia and Visual Representation of Disaster Analysis of Merapi Eruption in 2010IntroductionMethodLiterature Review on Disaster and Media RepresentationsResults and DiscussionMerapi Eruption Photographs: A Theme of Representation That Merapi Is Great, and People Are WeakMerapi Is Divine and SacredPeople Are WeakEvacuation Process Photographs: Representation of the People in DespairEvacuation Team Photographs: Representation of Capable Government ApparatusesEvacuation Center Photographs: Representation of Powerless People and the Government’s Inadequate Shelter and Aid ManagementThe Powerless SurvivorInadequate Shelter and Aid ManagementDamages Photographs: Representation of Houses as Most Fundamental Assets to the PeopleConclusionReferencesThe Role and Capacity of Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs) as Policy Advocates for Disability Inclusive DRR in IndonesiaIntroductionDisasters and Disability in IndonesiaPolicy ContextProgramme PurposeMethodExperiential LearningEmbedded Monitoring and E-valuationEnsuring AccessibilityInter-sectoral CollaborationDiscussion of FindingsRaised Awareness on Disability and DRRInclusion of Persons with Disabilities in DRR Planning and ProgrammingDPOs as Leaders in DRR InitiativesImplicationsConclusionReferencesThe Role of the Panglima Laot Customary Institution in the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Recovery in AcehIntroductionThe 2004 Indian Ocean TsunamiThe Panglima LaotMethodologyThe Roles and Effects of the Panglima LaotThe Roles and Effects of Key Recovery Actors, and Relationships with the Panglima LaotRehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency (BRR) of Aceh-NiasLocal GovernmentsInternational and Local NGOsRecovery Successes and Failures: Has Aceh Been Built Back Better?ConclusionsReferencesThe Role of Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) as Risk Communicators: Case Study of Bandung, West JavaIntroductionReview of Literature on Role of FBOs in DisasterRole of FBOs in DisasterMosques as FBOs (During Normal and Disaster Situations)The SIERA FrameworkMethodologyData Collection and AnalysisCase Study of Bandung City, Indonesia: Mosques as Part of FBOsResults and FindingsFBOs ’ PerceptionsFBOs Risk Communication Source and MechanismConclusion: Implications of FBOs Role in DRR and Risk CommunicationReferencesThe Role of a Women’s Collective in Rebuilding Livelihoods After a Disaster: Case Study of Salam Village, YogyakartaIntroductionStudy Aim and SiteMethodsEvaluating Project Outcomes Through a Sustainable Development LensSocial Dimension Successes: Education, Relationships and PrideEconomic Dimension Successes: Infrastructure and IncomeEnvironmental Dimension Successes: Limited Waste and TransportOngoing Challenges: Health, Gender Equality, Equipment, Demand and CompetitionConclusionReferencesScience Communication for Disaster Risk Reduction: Role of LIPI Through the COMPRESS ProgramIntroductionLiterature ReviewDisasters and Science in Indonesia: A Brief HistoryPerspectives in Science CommunicationReinventing Innovation and Science CommunicationScience Communication in Relations with Knowledge and PowerMethodExamining the Role of COMPRESS LIPI: Translating Science to the PublicDiscussion: The COMPRESS LIPI Program as an Experimental Work in Science CommunicationDealing with Collective IssuesCo-designing, Rather Than Disseminating InnovationManaging Complexity, Conflict and UnpredictabilityBecoming a Learning OrganizationBeing Brokers in an Era of ParticipationChanging Professional IdentitiesAltruism by Chance of Disasters: Not Enough?ConclusionReferencesIII Emerging Issues in DRR Research and PracticeEcosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia: Unfolding Challenges and OpportunitiesIntroductionAn Overview of Eco-DRR ApproachesGlobal FrameworksBenefits and LimitationsBenefitsCost EffectiveSocially and Environmentally FriendlySustainableLimitationsThe Limited Extent of ProtectionWeak Policy and ImplementationEco-DRR Approaches in IndonesiaCase Studies in IndonesiaMangrove Coastal Protection Program, Demak, Central JavaEcosystem Based Protection in Kuwaru Beach, YogyakartaImplications for Future Eco-DRR MeasuresChallengesNatural-Physical ChallengesExclusion, Inequality and Livelihood IssuesGovernanceOpportunitiesHybrid ApproachesAn Integrated and Embedded Livelihood Generating StrategyInstitutionalizing Interaction and Coordination Among StakeholdersConclusionReferencesCulture and Community Resilience to Flooding: Case Study of the Urban Coastal Community in JakartaIntroductionConceptual Framework: The Role of Culture in Community ResilienceE-volution of the Concept of Resilience to DisastersAspects of Culture That Shape Progressive Community ResilienceEthnicity: An Intermediary Attribute to Link Culture and ResilienceMethods for Empirical Data CollectionCase Study of Muara Baru in North of JakartaEmpirical Data CollectionStructured InterviewsSemi-structured InterviewsFocus Group DiscussionsData AnalysisResults and DiscussionEthnic Background of RespondentsCulture and Community ResiliencePractices/Behaviors which Influence Coping with FloodsPractice/Behaviors and Social Structures which Influence the Ability to Self-OrganizePractice/Behaviors and Social Structures which Influence Recovery ProcessesBeliefs and Values which Influence the Ability to Learn to AdaptConclusion and RecommendationReferencesReligious Interpretations and Psychological Recovery from the Aceh 2004 Tsunami: The Promise of Heaven, Healing the TraumaIntroductionMethodData CollectionData AnalysisLiterature ReviewPost Reconstruction Processes in Aceh: From the Point of View of Mental Health ExpertsThe Role of People’s Religious Interpretation Toward a Traumatic Event on the Ability to Recover and Mitigate DisastersResearch Findings: Survivors Perspectives and Scholars’ InterpretationsEverything That Happened Was PreordainedGod Will Not Give You More Than You Can Bare, There Is Ease After HardshipDo Not Be Sad, Instead Be Grateful for What You Still HaveRemember and Pray to God to Find PeaceDied as a Martyr (Shahid) and the Promise of HeavenConclusionReferencesIV Measuring Hazards, Risks and Community Resilience Flood Risk in Polder Systems in Jakarta Present and Future AnalysesIntroductionMethodologyEstimation of BenefitsEstimation of CostsResultsCurrent Situation: Kapuk Muara and Penjaringan Junction Give the Highest Net BenefitsFuture Situation: Kapuk Poglar and Nine Others Give High Net BenefitsDiscussionPolders with Very High Net Benefits Are Located Away from the CoastlinePolicy Implications of Polder Systems in JakartaUncertainty and Sensitivity TestFuture Research NeedsConclusionsReferencesForest and Land Fires Hazard Level Modeling: Case study of Kapuas, Central KalimantanIntroductionMethodMaterials and DataPreparation and Data ClassificationCorrelation Between Scoring Classes of Each Variable and HotspotWeighting VariablesDevelopment of Fire Hazard Model and Model VisualizationModel Accuracy TestDetermining the Distribution of Forest and Land Fires Hazard LevelResults and DiscussionRelationship Between Fire Activity and Causal Variables Effecting Forest and Land FiresSpatial Model of Forest and Land Fires Hazard LevelDistribution of Fire Hazard Level and Its Implementation in the Management of Forest and Land FiresConclusionReferencesTsunami Resilient Preparedness Indicators: The Effects of Integrating Religious Teaching and Roles of Religious LeadersIntroductionLiterature ReviewFatalistic Versus Positive View in Islamic Teachings on DisastersTsunami Resilience Preparedness (TRP) IndicatorsRisk Communication and Disaster PreparednessStudy MethodFindingsBoth the Intervention and Non-intervention Group Treat and Respond to the Leaflets SimilarlyIncrease in Change in Major TRP as Effect of Leaflet Containing Islamic MessagesEffect of Intervention Leaflet on TRP in the Intervention GroupConventional Leaflet Also Affect TRP in the Non-intervention GroupComparison Effects of Leaflets on TRP in Intervention and Nonintervention CommunityEffect of Intervention Leaflet Reinforced by Religious LeaderChange of TRP in Sub-group Reinforced by Religion LeaderChange of TRP in Sub-group Non-reinforcementEffect of Intervention Leaflet Reinforced by Religious LeaderDiscussions: TRP Increases When Risk Information Contains Religious Messages and Role of Religious LeaderConclusionsReferencesSocial Capital and Disaster Preparedness in Indonesia: A Quantitative Assessment Through Binary Logistic RegressionIntroductionLiterature Review and HypothesesSocial CapitalDisaster PreparednessLinkage Between Social Capital and Disaster PreparednessHypothesesMethodology and DataStudy AreaBinary Logistic RegressionDataResults and DiscussionDescriptive Analysis of the Population of StudyInference Analysis by Binary Logistic RegressionConclusions and RecommendationsReferencesMeasuring Community Resilience to Natural Hazards: Case Study of Yogyakarta ProvinceIntroductionMethodologyPreview of Sleman and Bantul RegencyData Collection MethodsLiterature ReviewDisaster ResilienceCulture and ResilienceGovernance and ResilienceSpatial Planning and ResilienceA Proposal for an Integrated Concept of Community Resilience (ICCR)The ICCR FrameworkInternal FactorExternal FactorsThe ICCR IndexFindings and DiscussionsThe ICCR FrameworkInternal FactorsExternal FactorsThe ICCR Index ResultsConclusionReferences
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