Analysis of the National Policy-Based Institutional Network
In accordance with the National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 20152019 (Government of Indonesia2015), the Disaster Management Program is no longer classified as a development priority, but instead it plays a role as the supporting policy for the seventh priority of the Joko Widodo President in ‘Nawa Cita’, i.e. to create economic independence through environment and disaster management investment that aims to protect the sustainability of strategic sectors of the domestic economy (Soetiarso et al. 2014).
With the target to reduce disaster risk in growth centers at high and medium risk, as per the Indonesian Disaster Risk Index (IRBI) (BNPB 2013), Gol set up strategies for disaster management policy as follows: (1) Internalization of DRR within the sustainable development framework at national and local level (five sub strategies); (2) Reducing the vulnerability to disasters (eight sub strategies); and (3) Strengthening the capacity of central government, local government and communities (eight sub strategies). The focus of RPJMN 2015-2019 is on the 136 districts/ cities which are located in an economic growth area, consisting of 120 districts/cit- ies with a high index of risk and 16 districts/cities with moderate risk level. The spatial distribution of those 136 districts/cities, as follows: Papua (10 districts/cities), Jawa-Bali (36), Kalimantan (18), Maluku (12), Nusa Tenggara (15), Sulawesi (24), and Sumatra (21).
Figure 3.1 shows the network map of the key actors based on sub strategies at the national level. More than 20 ministries/agencies as well as local governments, universities, NGOs and the donor community are connected in support of the disaster management agenda, which represents 90% of actors with a DRR-related agenda.
After classifying sub strategies into main strategies, Fig. 3.2 clearly shows the seven key players in the DRR agenda: BNPB, the Ministry of Home Affairs/MoHA (i.e. Kementerian Dalam Negeri/Kemendagri), the Ministry of Public Work and Housing/MoPW (i.e. Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat/ KemenPUPera), BPBDs, BAPPEDAs (i.e. Local Development Planning Agency), NGOs and Universities.
BNPB remains the core actor among other key players due to its function of coordinating the implementation of disaster management policy in Indonesia. Nevertheless, collaborative governance is compulsory for the DRR agenda (BNPB 2016a), as illustrated by the following: the BNPB budget capacity in 2013 was 1045 billion Rupiah, but after collaborating with more than 30 line ministries and agencies, the budget for disaster management reached 9500 billion Rupiah (Widjaja 2014, p. 11). In addition to this, the DRR strategy should also reflect the perspective of regional development that there is cooperation between regions in managing common risk and maintaining local and national development goals (Soetiarso et al. 2014; BAPPENAS 2015b).
Fig. 3.1 The national policy-based network (based on sub strategies) for implementing DRR. The national policy refers to DRR Policies in Presidential Regulation 2/2015 on RPJMN 2015-2019 (i.e. National Medium-term Development Plan), and is complemented by interviews with few actors from national levels (Sources: Authors 2016)
However, from the network analysis, we noticed a low level of coordination between BNPB and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry/MoEF (i.e. Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan/KLHK). Based on strategies in RPJMN 2015-2019, MoEF involvement was only mentioned in the strategy for ‘reducing vulnerability’ and ‘institutional capacity’ whereas actually the responsibility -to integrate CCA and DRR- lies on both organizations (i.e. BNPB and MoEF) and its network, in particular for internalization of the concept into formal level of development from national to local level. According to the interview, the formal engagement between BNPB and the National Council for Climate Change (i.e. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim/DNPI) which was initiated by MoEF was seen to be limited in acting a coordination role. For instance, BNPB is not a formal member of the DNPI Adaptation Group while DNPI is also not part of the National Platform for DRR (Djalante 2013; BNPB 2016a).
Fig. 3.2 The national policy-based network for implementing DRR (Sources: Authors 2016)
In addition to this, the recognition of the formal data sourced from Geospatial Information Agency (CNNIndonesia 2015) and National Bureau for Statistics (Antaranews 2008; Gatranews 2016) should be encouraged, though there has been collaboration network concerning data with the Agency for Meteorology and Geophysics. This is in line with the Presidential directives in many cabinet sessions to all line ministries and other government offices. Unless there is an issue of insufficient or unavailable data, this rule is also applied to Indonesian Institute of Sciences (i.e. Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia/LlPl), Agency for the assessment and application of Technology (i.e. Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi/BPPT) and university research activities.
At the meso level, the actors that could bridge and work directly at the grass roots are Universities, NGOs and a few international agencies (Djalante 2013; BAPPENAS 2015b). They are more flexible on budget and type of activities (Dompet Dhuafa 2015; Mercy Corps 2016), meaning they can better adapt to the inherent uncertainties associated with disaster management (Djalante 2013) and benefit the commu?nity as their primary partner. However, these actors may or may not have a similar agenda to the national agenda. In fact, some of them have been working beyond the GoI development framework (BAPPENAS 2015b; BNPB 2016a). Nevertheless, the international agencies and NGOs (both local and international) have played an important role in initiating new global concepts (i.e. Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and DRR integration and community based DRR), then internalizing and implementing them at local level within projects (Djalante 2013; Mercy Corps 2016).
Beside the aforementioned non-government actors, the national platform for DRR (i.e. Platform Nasional untuk Pengurangan Risiko Bencana/Planas PRB) has also been useful as a forum to integrate insights, aspirations and interests as well as bridging the various stakeholders of DRR in Indonesia (BNPB 2016a). In addition to this, government officers, professionals, NGOs and academia have also been connected within the Indonesia Disaster Experts Association (i.e. Ikatan Ahli Kebencanaan Indonesia/IABI) to exchange ideas and build understanding in order to translate GoI policies into practice or propose new knowledge-based policy. Moreover, both have contributed significantly to facilitating the annual gathering of DRR stakeholders at two national events -’the Commemoration of DRR’ and the ‘Indonesian Disaster Expert Conference’ - where DRR issues are discussed in depth.