Non-state Actor Participation
The new DM framework also encourages participation by non-state actors, including multilateral donors, international and domestic NGOs, CSOs, universities, private foundations, and private firms. Government Regulation 21/2008 on Implementing Disaster Management as well as GR 22/2008 and GR 23/2008, mentioned earlier, emphasize this. GR 21/2008 particularly encouraged the participation of communities and the private sector as part of a multi-stakeholder forum responsible for DRR processes. Earlier regulations like the Presidential Decrees 106/1999 and 3/2001 never cited the community or private sector in DM; Presidential Regulation 83/2005 merely mentioned that communities could aid disaster victims. But now the regulation on Public Participation in Disaster Management (No. 11/2014) issued by the BNPB chief highlights community involvement and public participation in DM. GR 22/2008 too encourages community participation in supplementing the provision of public funds, and Government Regulation 23/2008 allows international organizations and foreign NGOs to be involved in DM.
We have noted that several current provisions stress the need for greater public participation and community involvement. Yet, as with other aspects of the new DM framework, there are no definite guidelines to mainstream and routinise participation by non-state actors in DM. Furthermore, the objective for making non-state actors participate largely seems to be for increasing funding or offsetting costs, rather than making the DM process more inclusive or more effective by incorporating local wisdom and non-financial resources.