Semi-structured Interviews

Semi-structured interviews aim to get information from different backgrounds and knowledge (Barriball and While 1994). We conducted semi-structured interviews with local formal and informal leaders to get the information about the cultural factors that exist in the community and interaction among inhabitants. We also needed to find deeper information about the personal history and other information that is unavailable through structured interviews, such as the history of occupying the land in Pluit reservoir and social and ethnic conflict.

Focus Group Discussions

Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to understand the dynamic of interaction among community members. FGDs were conducted in RT 20 because this location is more stable compared to the two others in terms of the eviction process. The eviction is occurring in RT 19 and respondents in the social housing complex were rather homogenous. During the FGD, a researcher acts as a moderator and guides the participants by delivering some main questions and furthermore, the participants will interact with each other to discuss specific issues (Parker and Tritter 2006). Through the FGD, we can find new important information that still remains hidden during structured and semi-structured interviews (ibid). Detailed information about the method can be found in Table 19.1.


Location/number of respondents

Detail of sampling and questions

Data analysis

Semi- structured interviews: selected HH local informal leaders

RT 19

Selected households are based on length of their experiences of living in the prone area. Main questions:

Data from the interviews is transcribed and analyzed by selecting and coding the information (Barriball and While 1994)

RT 20

Social housing/3 local informal leaders (one in each location) 5 senior residents

History about disasters, history of their settlement, culture that exists in the community

Process of getting a place in informal housing, interaction and relation amongst community members

Selected informal leaders recognized based on local community information during research. Main questions:

Role in community before, during and after disaster and during normal conditions

Establishment of informal system and how to make it last for decades



RT 19

Respondents were selected with purposive random sampling by considering the house location, migrants and heterogeneity of economic activities. A number of respondents in social housing are lesser that others due to the homogeneity of their housing status and process to move. Structured questions are structured mainly into four parts, namely:

Data from structured interviews is presented through frequency tables and descriptive analysis

RT 20

Social housing/170 HHs

Family background, such as family size, place of origin, ethnicity and related livelihood

Perception of risk

Coping and adaptation strategies to respond to the two extreme floods in 2007 and 2013

Social capital including the social aspect of resilience that leads to information for self-organization, recovery after a disaster and learning to adapt

Focus Group



RT 20/

Main questions of FGDs:

Information is transcribed. Categorized and interpreted

Two groups each consist of 10 and 8

Local mapping of vulnerability and risk

Collective actions to respond to risk of floods

The distribution of roles in the communities

Source: Authors

Data Analysis

Data from structured interviews is analyzed through descriptive statistics. Meanwhile, data from semi-structured interviews is analyzed through the stages of selecting, coding and categorizing information. Moreover, the result of the FGDs is processed’ through managing, sorting and interpreting the data (Rabiee 2004). Eventually we combine all of data and information through triangulation procedure. The finding from household’s survey will be complemented by the findings from semi-structured interviews and focus group discussion.

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