In summary, this chapter is an introduction to new device concepts incorporating GaN NWs as active elements. The NW geometry set the bases for ultimate device miniaturization, and its large surface-to-volume ratio extends the range of size and band-gap engineering beyond the limits of planar systems. The development of new methods to synthesize defect-free III-N NWs with controlled-by-design chemical and physical characteristics (geometrical dimensions, doping profile, radial and axial heterostructuring...) has enabled the introduction of these nano-objects in application domains such as energy conversion, nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and sensorics. First prototypes of single-NW photoconductors, In-containing core-shell-NW photovoltaic devices, piezo-electric nanogenerators, single-NW FETs, SETs, RTDs, and opto-chemical and electro-chemical transducers, have laid the foundations of a cutting-edge technology with the potential to revolutionize the semiconductor field.

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