What Do We Know about Crime?
- 1. Why we collect crime statistics
- 2. How we measure crime
- 3. What we know about crime from these measures
- 4. Viewing crime based on statistics
- 5. The crime analyst and crime statistics
Learning Objectives for Chapter 2
- 1. Understand how crime is measured
- 2. Gain an objective understanding of crime statistics
- 3. Be able to discuss the pros and cons of the major measures of crime
- 4. Understand why crime statistics are important for the crime analyst
- 5. Understand the CompStat process and its relevance in tactical planning
Almost from the time it was organized in 1893, the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) adopted resolutions to organize or encourage national crime reporting programs. Although originally established to bring about police reform and professionalism in policing, the IACP in 1927 organized the Committee on Uniform Crime Reporting. The basic Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program was developed by this committee, and then adopted and initiated by the IACP in 1929.
It was soon recognized that such a program was too large in scope for the limited budget and staff of the IACP, and help was requested from the federal government. On June 11, 1930, Congress authorized the Bureau of Investigation, which would later be officially renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), to collect uniform crime statistics under Public Law 337, Title 28, §554. Since that time, the FBI has collected crime statistics nationally from police agencies on a voluntary basis, publishing a report—the Uniform Crime Reports—each year.
Almost simultaneously with Public Law 337, President Herbert Hoover created the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement in 1929 with George W. Wickersham as its chair. The commission was popularly known as the Wickersham Commission, and this commission conducted the first national study of the U.S. criminal justice system. A voluminous report, the Wickersham Commission report, released in 1931, made many recommendations—some related to the unenforceability of the Volstead Act (which had created Prohibition), some to the shortcomings of the police, but others to improvements needed in the organization of state crime reporting programs.
In 1950, the well-known criminologist Thorsten Sellin published an article in the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. In this article, Sellin decried the inadequate state of criminal statistics in this country: “Nowhere in the United States today is it possible to find a well integrated and reasonably adequate system of criminal statistics, either on the local, state, federal, or national basis, in spite of the fact that we have long been deeply concerned with the serious character of our crime problem. We should no longer ignore one of the most necessary instruments available to us in our efforts to cope with criminality” (Sellin, 1950, p. 680). He went on to report on the various and sporadic attempts to develop national crime statistics, and he called for the passage of a Uniform Criminal Statistics Act to remedy the problem. Subsequently, the Uniform Criminal Justice Statistics Act was passed in some states, although the American Bar Association was lobbying for its passage in every state (Rosen, 1995).
It was not until 1979, however, that the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) was established under the Justice Systems Improvement Act of 1979, an amendment to the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. The mission of the BJS is to collect, analyze, publish, and disseminate information on crime, criminal offenders, victims of crime, and the operation of justice systems at all levels of government. The BJS is a component of the Office of Justice Programs within the U.S. Department of Justice.
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), originally called the National Crime Survey, was started in 1972 in response to a perceived need for more comprehensive information about the extent and nature of crime in the United States. In reaction to rising crime levels in our nation’s cities, President Lyndon Johnson in 1965 convened the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice (LEAA) to examine the root causes and characteristics of crime in the United States and to recommend policies and programs to address what was seen to be a growing problem. The commission found that the FBI’s UCR Program, which was based on crimes reported to law enforcement agencies, although the only program measuring the extent of crime in the nation, did not collect sufficient information to evaluate the extent and nature of the crime that was occurring. The UCR Program obtained (and still does so today) information only on crimes reported to police, and obtained little information about the characteristics of crimes and crime victims or the impact of crime on victims.
To remedy this information void, the LEAA developed pilot studies to explore the viability of using sample surveys to obtain data on crime, including that not reported to police. These initial experiments produced useful results, and LEAA recommended that a national victimization survey be implemented (President’s Commission on Law Enforcement, 1967). Ever since, the BJS, in association with the Census Bureau, has conducted a nationwide survey and publishes information on the victims of crime.
In this chapter, you will gain a better understanding of the vital role statistics play in criminology, criminal justice, and crime and intelligence analysis. Data analysis has become an increasingly critical component in police administration and crime prevention, as well as in the investigative process. Crime analysts—whether working with data that are stored and evaluated over time or with data based on observation and real-time intelligence collection—rely heavily on examining statistical data. The results of their data analysis are used, in part, to form conclusions that support the justification for tactical recommendations made to address issues related to crime.
Such was the case in the summer of 2014, where along the highways that run through a county located in upstate New York, a “highway shooter” wreaked havoc over a period of several months. Data analysis proved to be a key component in the investigative process as crime analysts studied the data to identify patterns, provide temporal and spatial information, and create strategic maps, such as shown in Figure 2.1.
The map in Figure 2.1 was created using geographic information systems (GIS) technology that extrapolated statistical data from police reports to plot specific points of reference on the map. For the crime analyst, the intelligence learned from the data that populated the map helped to identify similarities between shooting incidents, which in turn helped to identify a pattern that was based on date, time, and location, as well as possible points of entry and egress the suspected shooter may have favored when engaged in shooting at passing automobiles.
Before you are introduced to the analysis process in which an event goes from suspected criminal incident to a documented event and, eventually, to a statistical value analyzed by law enforcement, we will first review the basic concepts of gathering statistics and the analysis of statistics employed in criminal justice. First, let’s start with a very basic question: How do we figure out how much crime takes place in America?