Teaching strategies

Thornbury (2013: 215) suggests that 'the role of pre-packaged materials' should be 'arguably less central' and teachers should manage learning to make materials 'potentially even counterproductive'. In alignment with Thornbury's critical approach to the evaluation and use of materials, the following are teaching strategies that were developed from Victor's and Grace's teaching and their students' learning. One implication of Victor's and Grace's teaching for formulating teaching strategies towards ELF-oriented classroom practice is to consider how theories of teaching and learning support longitudinal or persistent adherence to or critical resistance to NES input through materials and its influence on student's perception of language and language use. Another implication of their teaching is to develop strategies for critical teaching practice that refers to alternative thinking and teaching which challenges and de-centres established, taken-for-granted NES approaches to materials, as Thornbury (2013: 215) and Pennycook (2012) suggest. To realise these implications, a critical approach is first suggested to evaluate and use the chosen materials for teacher trainers and trainees and to problematise dominant linguacultural representation in textbooks. An open approach to content and use of material is then recommended, thus permitting sufficient flexibility for teacher educators and student teachers to draw on other teaching/learning resources to challenge pre-packaged NES approaches to content materials and then seek alternatives. For example, teachers should avoid inclusive adoption of specific materials and limited evaluation of materials during teaching to de-centralise US/NES-related materials in contrast with Victor's consistent use and limited evaluation of a kind of material. Alternatively, de-centralising the dominant roles of US/NES-based material can be achieved by introducing non-NES/US-based input sources, as Grace did when she drew on her own and her students' examples as learning resources.

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