Raising ELF awareness in university classrooms
According to Bolitho et al. (2003: 251), teachers need to consider LA development by helping learners to 'gain insights into how languages work' and encourage them to 'discover language for themselves' (Hawkins 1984 in Bolitho et al. 2003: 251). Current study shows the influence of student exploration and reveals the need for teacher support. According to Murray (2010: 293), learners benefit from both inductive approach-informed activities that 'break away from simplistic explanations of form-function correspondences' and a deductive approach-based appreciation of general principles that underlie speech acts. Following this, a guided LA approach is proposed, integrating teacher support and student exploration and including the aspects as discussed in the rest of this section.
Providing explicit knowledge
Sifakis (2014) considers the primary task for ELF-aware teacher education to be the introduction to ELF-related literature. In the same vein, students can benefit from knowledge in this respect. A considerable body of literature offers sources of knowledge about the spread of English, covering the historical, political and sociocultural contexts of the spread of English, the statistics of users of English around the world, and the variation of English as a consequence of its spread (e.g., Crystal 2003; Graddol et al. 2007). Among others (e.g., Cogo and Dewey 2012; Jenkins 2007), a comprehensive discussion of ELF as a concept can be found in Seidlhofer (2011), which poses fundamental challenges to the idea of native English as the only reference of English and reconsiders conventional concepts, such as nativeness, language, culture, and community. Students can be introduced to the literature and guided to explore issues discussed in it.
It is also important to help students understand the issue of linguistic right in the discussion of linguistic diversity. It would be helpful to introduce university students to different perspectives on the spread of English and different Englishes so as to promote critical analysis of native English and other kinds of English. Critical voices can be found in Phillipson (1992) and Pennycook (1994) with regards to the spread of English. The Quirk-Kachru debate in English Today journal provides good resources to provoke reflections on different forms of English (Kachru 1991; Quirk 1990). While it is still a popular view that 'the true repository of the English language is its native speakers' (Trudgill 2002: 151), Jenkins' (2014) book offers in-depth discussion of the complexity of English language policies and practices in academic ELF discourse and points to the need for a total change of mind-set regarding native English as the exclusively preferred English.