Procedure

We used two methods of data collection: online and face-to-face. At the start of the project, teachers were asked to upload their brief autobiographies on the project's portal. They then uploaded their reflections-responses to the questions based on the readings on the project portal (www.teacherdevelopment.boun. edu.tr). Before face-to-face meetings, they would receive email prompts that prepared them for the meetings, to which they also responded via email. In the final stage of the project, they uploaded their lesson plans, together with reflections on how each lesson went. The data collected from the face-to-face meetings included focus-group interviews and group discussions that focused on prompting teachers to report their experience of their transformative process.

We used content analysis and thematic analysis to uncover meaning in the participants' responses to questions, their reflections after the trial lessons, and their self-evaluations. According to Braun and Clarke (2006), thematic analysis is a qualitative analytic enquiry used for 'identifying, analysing, and reporting patterns (themes) within data. It minimally organises and describes your data set in (rich) detail' (2006: 79). Mayring (2004) describes content analysis as 'systematic examination of communicative material. [...] What is essential, however, is that the communicative material should be fixed or recorded in some form' (2004: 266). In this study, thematic analysis was used to identify categories found in the data, and content analysis was used to examine the written, spoken, and visual data in relation to the categories. Content analysis can be applied to recorded material, open-ended responses to interview questions, survey questions, and so on.

Two broad thematic categories emerged from the content analysis of portal entries, teachers' reflections, and focus group interviews: one involving issues concerning native/non-native speakers of English, and one regarding emerging topics in the pedagogy of ELF in secondary school classrooms. In the first category, teachers focused on the sub-themes of intelligibility, communities of practice, and the ownership of English, whereas in the second category, their reflections focused on ELF-aware language teaching methodology and ELF- aware language teaching materials.

 
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