Understanding ELF, migration and the workplace
ELF communication is understood to involve both speakers who may or may not be considered 'bilingual' as well as native speakers. Studies of language practices and ELF use within business contexts have focused primarily on 'white collar' workplace settings and emphasize the need to develop international communicative competence among speakers of different L1 backgrounds (Poncini 2004; Louhiala-Salminen et al. 2005; Planken 2005; Kankaanranta and Louhiala-Salminen 2007, 2010; Rogerson-Revell 2008; Ehrenreich 2009; Planken and Nickerson 2009; Pullin Stark 2009; Cogo 2012). Many of these studies also provide suggestions for facilitating professional communication in different workplace contexts, that is, being able to write information effectively, delivering persuasive oral presentations, and utilizing key business and economic terminology (cf. Kankaanranta and Louhiala-Salminen 2007).
However, not all workers who use ELF have access to institutions of higher education or strive to use English for 'professional' reasons. This is particularly true of the object of this study - the migrant domestic worker ELF learner and user.