Teachers' knowledge base
With regard to teachers' knowledge base, the interviews from domestic migrant workers support the argument that ELF teachers should also be speakers of learners' L1s. This means not using an exclusive exonormative native speaker model or an endonormative nativized model (Kirkpatrick 2007), but rather a hybrid model, which encompasses tenets of both. While teachers may indeed be native English speakers, they should also be multilingual speakers in that they are proficient in their students' L1s. In this context, teachers may have English as their L1 but should be proficient in a Portuguese or Spanish variety as well. In other words, the learning environment could be a 'hybrid heter- oglossic reality of the world outside' (Kramsch 2014: 300). For teachers, sharing the knowledge of their students' L1 should be viewed as an advantage (Cook 2002) in that they too have had to learn another language. In this way, teachers are experienced language learners, who may inevitably be more sensitive and empathetic towards students facing potential learning difficulties (Medgyes 1994). Finding multilingual ELF teachers may prove to be somewhat challenging, but it is certainly possible considering that 35% of Newark's inhabitants are Hispanic (Newark City Data 2014).