Ethnogeriatrics: Healthcare Needs of Diverse Populations

I Ethnogeriatrics Foundations Why Ethnogeriatrics Is ImportantEthnogeriatrics Foundations: Defining Key Terms and ConceptsBetween and With-In Group Heterogeneity in HealthExplaining Racial and Ethnic Health DisparitiesHistorical ContextPsychosocial and Individual Level FactorsCultureSocial NetworksEnvironmentChallenges to Providing Health Care in an Aging and Diverse PopulationInadequately Prepared Health Care WorkforceOrganizational and Structural Health System ChallengesGaps in KnowledgeKey PointsReferencesHistorical and Conceptual Foundations of EthnogeriatricsHistorical Development of EthnogeriatricsEthnogeriatric EducationClinical Ethnogeriatrics and Ethnogeriatric ResearchConceptual Foundations of EthnogeriatricsDemographics: Our Ethnogeriatric ImperativeEpidemiology: Risk of Diseases Among Diverse EldersAcculturation: Cultural Competence and Cultural HumilityHistorical Experiences: Cohort AnalysisClinical Skills in Ethnogeriatric CareConclusionReferencesDemographic Trends in AgingIntroduction-Aging, Race, and EthnicityNational and International Projections for Racial and Ethnic CompositionGeneral US PatternsEuropean PatternsGeographic US PatternsImpact of ImmigrantsGroup CharacteristicsHeterogeneitySocioeconomic FactorsReligionLanguageDisease and DisabilityConclusionReferencesImpact of Immigration: Disease Exposure and Health MaintenanceIntroductionOccupational Hazards Among Older ImmigrantsDisease ExposureCommunicable DiseaseNoncommunicable DiseaseHealth MaintenanceHealth Screening and ImmunizationsHealth Education and Mental Health CounselingNutrition and ExerciseEliciting Explanatory ModelsReferencesII Research Issues in Ethnogeriatrics How to Study Ethnogeriatrics from the Global to the LocalIntroductionQuestionsDisparity at the Population LevelDeconstructing DisadvantageIntermediate StudiesThe Place of Ethnology in EthnogeriatricsReferencesTrial Participation and InclusionSignificance of Minority Inclusion in ResearchBarriers to ParticipationImportant Concepts That Address Barriers to Recruitment and RetentionSummary StatementReferencesIII Clinical Care in Ethnogeriatrics Health Disparities: Access and UtilizationIntroductionData Challenges in Clinical and Translational ResearchImpact on Guidelines and Systems of CareCultural Considerations in Clinical Practice and OutcomesSystematic Approach to Recognizing, Analyzing, and Addressing ChallengesGreater Understanding and Improvement in Health Care Utilization, Access, and OutcomesEducation of New and Practicing PractitionersConclusionsReferencesEpidemiology of Aging: Racial/Ethnic Specific Disease PrevalenceIntroductionRisk FactorsLeading Causes of DeathHeart DiseaseCancersProstate CancerBreast CancerColon CancerLung CancerCancer SummaryChronic Lower Respiratory DiseaseUnintentional InjuresStrokeDementiaDiabetesInfluenza/PneumoniaKidney DiseaseHIVConclusionReferencesCaregiver: Roles in Health ManagementDemographicsThe Cost of Providing CarePerception of CaregiverDepression and Caregiver BurdenCaregiving Effect on HealthInterventionsConclusionReferencesHospice/Palliative Care: Concepts of Disease and DyingCulture and Ethnicities: End-of-Life (EOL) Care Disparity Among Diverse PopulationsDelivery ofEOL CareBackground of Ethnicities in the USCommunication and Interpreter UseCaregiver RoleConcepts of Disease and DyingBeliefs and EducationReligionDeath and DyingEOL PreferencesAggressive TherapyPlace of DeathDecision-Making (Family vs. Patient-Center) and Advanced DirectivesHospice UseSuggestions for Future EOL Care Among Ethnically Diverse PatientsReferencesGeriatric Psychiatry: Perceptions, Presentations, and TreatmentsIntroductionEthnic and Cultural Influence in Mental HealthEthnic and Cultural Stigma Associated with Mental HealthAcculturationEthnic Identity and Mental HealthReligious Influence in Mental HealthMental Health in Minority and Ethnic GroupsDepressionAnxietyBipolar DisorderPsychosisBehavioral and Psychological Symptoms of DementiaSuicidePrimary Care-Based InterventionTreatment Efficacy and EthnicityAdherence, Compliance, and AccessCultural Assessments/Competence and Cultural ConceptsConclusionReferencesIV Education in EthnogeriatricsIncorporating Ethnogeriatrics into Training CompetenciesCultural Competency and Cultural HumilityCultural Competency CurriculumExisting Ethnogeriatric CurriculumNovel Models For Training PractitionersConclusionReferencesAssessments for the Practicing Clinician: Practical ToolsCognitive/Neuropsychological Assessment (Including Dementia and Delirium Screening)Functional AssessmentPain Screening ToolsDeliriumDepressionSpirituality and End of LifeSpiritualityEnd of LifeReferencesV Policy and EconomicsPolicy: Impact on Delivery and AccessCultural Competence as a Focus of Public PolicyImportant Legislative Initiatives in EthnogeriatricsAreas for Further Consideration for Public Policy AdvocatesReferencesThe Future of EthnogeriatricsIntroductionDemographicsProjections of the Future Size and Percentage of Older Adults from Diverse PopulationsProjections of Foreign-Born Among Older AmericansProjections of Language Use Among Older AmericansFuture of Clinical EthnogeriatricsHealth Policy Implications for the Future of EthnogeriatricsNationLocal GovernmentHealth Organizations Including Hospitals and Ambulatory CareClinical Providers (Particularly Geriatricians and Other Providers for Older Adults)Ethnogeriatric Patients and Their FamiliesConclusionReferences
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