ON IDENTITIES OF COMMUNITY IN CIVIC AND CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
The main argument of this chapter is that the revival of civic and citizenship education (CCE) is the transition from the civic identity of Self-ness to that of community based on the comparison of models of Cultivation of Good Citizen between China and the West. This chapter consists of four sections. The first section considers the conception of the changing background and situation of CE/CCE. The second section has a quick glance at the main models of nation-states and their differences of matrix on Good Citizen based on the method of comparative study. Based on the case-studies of models of countries and the empirical data from the results of IEA and my sampling investigations in China, I would discuss three philosophical categories of civic identities to be used in education, namely the narrated We-ness, the constructed We-ness, and the de-constructed We-ness as to explain the reasons why one nation-state should choose a specific model of practice according to the logic from self to community. And finally, the study concludes with the “borrowing” ideas or advices from international experiences for China and others like it.
To demonstrate what I mean in this chapter, I define identity as a kind of confirmation and realization of the subject compared with the object or the otherness from the perspective of philosophy. Hence two relevant notions are proposed in the chapter to understand identity as Self-ness and We-ness by Zhang (2000) consulting the related philosophical views in order to separate the civic identity in individuality from that in public sense (or community) existing in the current complicated schooling practices in CCE between China and the West. From the point of individuality, identity is concerned with self-ness, self-location, and self-realization; from the point of community, it is connected with knowledge, position and realization of We-ness in the group, society, or community. Citizenship education stands for central issues or new tendencies in current theoretical and practical discussions. Among those, the cultivation of citizenship (public) identity is one of the central and complicated issues. The Outline of Medium and Long Term Educational Plan (2010-2020) issued by The Ministry of Education of China has put forward the issues of consciousness of citizenship education, building up the ideas of democratic constitutionality of socialism, freedom and equality, and justice and equity (MOE, P. R. China, 2010). The key point of the cultivation of a qualified citizen is the education of identity of community and the consciousness of citizenship, which hits the core of the subjects
M. Print & C. Tan (Eds.), Educating “Good” Citizens in a Globalising World for the Twenty-First Century, 155-175.
© 2015 Sense Publishers. All rights reserved.
of The Chinese Dream, the purposes of nurturing men by setting up morality put forth by the outline above, and the national curriculum reform.