U.S. History

About the AP U.S. History ExamWHAT'S ON THE TESTKey factsImportant themes and topicsPOLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL (PES) QUESTIONSPolitics trendsEconomy trendsTrends in social historyWHAT THE AP GRADES MEANConverting letters to numbersCollege credit policiesTEST PREPARATIONA study strategyTime limitsAvoiding test-induced panicGetting Mentally Prepared for the Big TestIDENTIFYING THE WAY YOU LEARNStudying by sightStudying by soundStudying through movementWAYS TO MAXIMIZE YOUR STUDY TIMESTRATEGIES TO REDUCE PRETEST ANXIETYProgressive relaxationDeep breathingQuiet EarsTWO DAYS BEFORE THE EXAMEXAM DAYSection I: Multiple choiceBreak timeSection II: The DBQ and essaysStrategies for the Multiple-Choice SectionTHINKING LIKE THE TEST WRITERSPoints hidden in plain sightLeveraging what you knowAvoiding word trapsGoing with what you knowUsing historic eras to gain pointsQuestioning illustrationsTIME MANAGEMENT DURING THE TESTTarget easy questions firstPace yourselfMark in the question bookScoring Well on Document-Based Questions (DBQs)USING DOCUMENTS LIKE A HISTORIANDBQ SCORESThe 8-to-9 essayThe 5-to-7 essayThe 2-to-4 essayThe 0-to-1 essayPAT: A STRATEGY FOR ANSWERING DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTIONSWriting a good thesisUsing appropriate proofSAMPLE DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION: THE RECONSTRUCTIONThe question and source documents exampleAnswering the Reconstruction DBQWriting AP-Quality EssaysHOW TO HANDLE TIMINGSELECTING THE BEST QUESTIONSWriting like a professorUsing proof, analysis, and thesis (PAT)GRADING CRITERIA FOR ESSAY QUESTIONSCONVERTING QUESTIONS TO PAT ANSWERSAnalyzing an essay questionSettling on your thesisPlanning the essayWriting the essayChecking out a sample essayWrapping up the essay planU.S. History from America's Beginning to NowAmerican Indians from 20,000 BCE to 1491 CETHE FIRST AMERICANS,000 years before Columbus to Columbus's timeThe focus on Mesoamerican culturesEARLY AMERICAN INDIAN EMPIRESThe Mayan empireThe Incan empireThe Aztec empireAMERICAN INDIANS IN NORTH AMERICANATIVE AMERICANS AND THE SPREAD OF INFECTIOUS DISEASESUNEVEN GIFT EXCHANGEThe New World: 1492-1690EUROPEANS SETTLE INTO THE NEW WORLDThe far-reaching impact of Columbus's discoveryThe Spanish and Portuguese settlement of the New WorldEnglish coloniesThe different approaches to colonizationTHE AMERICAN COLONIESThe settling of MassachusettsThe founding of Rhode IslandThe Connecticut colonyDutch colonies in New York and New JerseyThe difference between Puritans and PilgrimsPennsylvania and DelawareColonial MarylandThe Virginia colonyThe Carolina colonyGeorgiaEARLY CHALLENGES TO THE NEW COLONIESAmerican Indian troublesThe Navigation and Molasses ActsDisease and moneyEarly rebellionsSlavery before the RevolutionLife in New EnglandWitches and religionThe Road to the Revolution: 1691-1775POPULATION EXPANSION IN THE COLONIESThe Scotch-IrishThe GermansThe FrenchAfricans and the ongoing issue of slaveryDAILY LIFE IN THE COLONIESThe relative prosperity of the coloniesEducation and vocationsAMERICAN ARTSAmerican paintersArchitectureLiterature, libraries, and the birth of American journalismCHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD RELIGIONEARLY POLITICSMAKING MONEY IN COLONIAL AMERICAThe triangular tradeMercantilismTrade tensionFIGHTING ACROSS NORTH AMERICAFrontier fightingThe French and Indian WarThe British halt Western expansionPRELUDE TO THE REVOLUTIONARY WARNew thoughts about freedomThe Stamp ActThe Townshend ActThe Boston MassacreThe Boston Tea PartyThe Intolerable ActsThe first Continental CongressLexington and ConcordCOLONIAL HISTORY ESSAY SUBJECTSFrom Revolution to Republic: 1776-1815COMMON SENSE AND THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCEEARLY BATTLES BETWEEN BRITAIN AND THE PATRIOTSProblems faced by the BritishProblems the patriots facedSlaves: Fighting for both sidesTHE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: AN OVERVIEWValley Forge and help from FranceCornwallis and losing moraleVictory and the Treaty of ParisDESIGNING A NEW COUNTRYSeparation of church and stateEarly attempts to abolish slaveryWomen's gains and republican motherhoodTrade, industry, and economic democracyExpanding the countryTHE LEGAL FOUNDATION OF A NATIONThe Articles of ConfederationShays' RebellionThe first president: George WashingtonThe Bill of RightsTHE YOUNG REPUBLICThe Whiskey RebellionForming political partiesStaying out of other people's warsWashington leaves officeJOHN ADAMSTHOMAS JEFFERSON AND THE 1800SEmpowering the Supreme CourtThe Louisiana PurchaseThe Lewis and Clark expeditionEVENTS LEADING TO THE WAR OF 1812James Madison steps inBritain's deal with TecumsehThe War of 1812 against BritainTHE ERA OF GOOD FEELINGSThe United States Grows Up, 1816-1845MANIFEST DESTINYKICK-STARTING POLITICAL ACTIONPresidents during this periodThe Marshall CourtTHE MISSOURI COMPROMISE OF 1820THE MONROE DOCTRINE (1823)THE TRAIL OF TEARS (1838)ANDREW JACKSON'S PRESIDENCYJackson's Kitchen CabinetJackson's response to nullificationAbolishing the Bank of the U.S.MODERN CONVENIENCESFactory jobs and the American DreamAdvances in transportationThe Industrial RevolutionSLAVERY GROWS WITH COTTONThe cotton gin and expanding slaveryThe increasing power of pro-slavery factionsThe anti-slavery movementEDUCATION AND THE ARTSTRANSCENDENTALISM AND THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENINGFrom Sea to Shining Sea: 1846-1854NEW INVENTIONSThe advent of mass productionThe telegraphSTRIDES IN TRANSPORTATIONTraveling the long and winding roadCreating canalsSOCIAL CHANGEKey social movements of the 1800sMoving from farm to factoryPublic educationExpanding religious diversityEXPANDED ROLES FOR WOMENGaining control of their own livesWomen's rightsARTS IN MID-19TH CENTURY AMERICAStephen Foster and the American songbookThe rise of American literatureTHE ECONOMICS OF SLAVERYEARLY ETHNIC GROUP ISSUESThe relocation of Native AmericansThe treatment of immigrantsProblems faced by free blacksSlave revoltsAbolitionists in the NorthMORE LAND FOR AMERICASLIDING TO CIVIL WARThe Compromise of 1850Stephen Douglas and the Kansas-Nebraska ActThe Fight over Slavery: 1855-1865UNCLE TOM'S CABIN AND THE SHIFT IN PUBLIC OPINIONFROM WORDS TO BULLETS IN BLEEDING KANSASTHE DRED SCOTT DECISIONBackgroundThe rulingThe ramificationsFINANCIAL COLLAPSE: THE PANIC OF 1857THE ELECTION OF 1860: WIDENING THE DIVIDEAbraham Lincoln runs for presidentJohn BrownLincoln's election and Southern successionTHE CIVIL WAR ERUPTSThe battles at Bull Run (1861 and 1862)The battle at Antietam (1862)The Emancipation ProclamationBlockade of southern supply linesThe battles of Fredericksburg (1862) and Chancellorsville (1863)The battles at Gettysburg and Vicksburg (1863)Extending freedomThe presidential election of 1864 and the end of the warThe loss of LincolnTHE AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WARReconstruction and the Move Westward, 1866-1880RECONSTRUCTIONThe Radical RepublicansThe Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth AmendmentsWomen, former slaves, and the limits of freedomSouthern opposition to ReconstructionThe end of ReconstructionTHE PRESIDENCY OF ULYSSES S. GRANTLIFE IN THE GILDED AGEThe change in currency to paper moneyImmigrationIndustrialization and the birth of labor unionsIncreasing literacyThe impact of Charles DarwinCensorship and women's rightsThe temperance movementTHE PUSH WESTWARDThe railroad and economic growthThe cultivation of the WestFurther assaults on Native American holdings and rightsThe U.S. Grows Up, 1881-1899SOCIAL CHANGE IN THE GILDED AGESeparate but not equalDealing with change on the railroadsProgress for immigrantsThe growing women's rights movementEducating the populationBicycles: Providing transportation for everyoneARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURYLiterature leading to actionArts and musicPRESIDENTS OF THE PERIODJames Garfield, Chester Arthur, and William McKinleyGrover ClevelandBenjamin HarrisonThe return of Grover ClevelandGETTING DOWN TO BUSINESSThe rise of the big businessmanNorth versus South in businessPrivate enterprise and antitrust lawsHARD TIMES AND LABOR UNIONSHard times for farmers, tooThird partiesSETTLING THE WESTPressure on American IndiansHelen Jackson's RamonaBACKING PAPER MONEY WITH PRECIOUS METALSAMERICAN IMPERIALISMThe annexation of HawaiiThe Spanish-American WarRejecting the idea of empireAmerica on the International Stage, Ready or Not: 1900-1919THE UNITED STATES IN ASIAChina and the Open Door PolicyThe Boxer RebellionTHEODORE ROOSEVELTEarly lifeAppointments and positionsThe McKinley-Roosevelt election of 1900The Roosevelt presidencyEXPOSING THE SHORTCOMINGS OF SOCIETYThe era of the muckrakerFood safetyAchievements of the ProgressivesRoosevelt's Square DealPreserving the American wildernessThe financial panic in 1907Roosevelt's legacyWILLIAM HOWARD TAFT AND TRUST-BUSTINGIDEALISM WITH WOODROW WILSONWilson's New FreedomsThe Federal Reserve ActThe Trade Commission and Anti-Trust ActVictories for ordinary peopleWilson's great shortcoming: Government segregationWilson's international progressWORLD WAR IThe sinking of the LusitaniaAmerica enters the Great WarWilson's 14 pointsLaws repressing anti-war sentimentWar preparationsWomen's progress during the Great WarWartime food production and ProhibitionEntering the fight — reluctantlyThe Great War endsThe peace that cannot holdWilson's attempt to save the peaceThe League of Nations fallsThe Jazz Age and the Great Depression: 1921-1939U.S. VERSUS COMMUNISM: THE EARLY YEARSTHE RETURN OF THE KLANIMMIGRATION ACT OF 1924THE JAZZ AGEProhibition: High demand and high crimeChanging moralsMass production and mass consumptionAdvances in transportationRadioThe Harlem RenaissanceMovies and their influenceFlappersControversy over evolutionThe power of the penArchitectureSIGNS OF ECONOMIC TROUBLE AHEADPOLITICS LEADING TO THE DEPRESSIONCalvin Coolidge: "Silent Cal" stands byHerbert Hoover: Good intentions, bad mistakesTHE STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1929The Smoot-Hawley TariffThe millionaires' doleThe height of the Depression: 1932FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE NEW DEALAttempts to address the greatest needsThe Dust BowlThe legacy of the New DealDEMAGOGUES OF THE DEPRESSIONWorld War II: 1940-1945THE BRINK OF WARThe London Economic Conference (1933)Latin America and the Good Neighbor PolicyJapan eyes the PhilippinesReciprocal Trade Agreement ActHitler, Mussolini, and FrancoThe Neutrality ActsTHE FLAMES OF WAR GROW HIGHERBritain and France take a standTentative U.S. steps toward warHitler invades the Soviet UnionJapan attacks Pearl HarborFIGHTING TO WIN ON THE HOME FRONTThe treatment of Japanese AmericansWar productionFighting discrimination in defense industriesMinorities in the armed forcesU.S. recovery from the DepressionTHE FIGHT IN THE PACIFICMidwayGuadalcanalTHE FIGHT IN EUROPEBritish and U.S. air attacks on GermanyThe Soviets fight backD-day and NormandyThe HolocaustTHE ATOMIC BOMB AND THE END OF THE CONFLICTThe decision to drop the bombThe outcome of World War IIVictory and Cold War: 1946-1960POST-WWII AMERICAThe baby boomA brighter economic outlookThe GI BillThe International Monetary FundThe United NationsTRUMAN, THE UNEXPECTED PRESIDENTTHE BEGINNING OF THE COLD WARThe shift from ally to enemyThe escalation of perceived threatsThe policy of containmentThe Marshall PlanThe National Security Act and NATOANTI-COMMUNISM HYSTERIAThe Loyalty Review BoardMcCarthyismTHE KOREAN WARTHE EISENHOWER PRESIDENCYPolitics under IkeTensions with the U.S.S.R.THE PROSPEROUS 1950SDoubling the middle classWomen in the workforceAddicted to energyThe first computerThe cost of affluenceTHE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT OF THE 1950SDixiecratsRosa ParksBrown v. Board of EducationThe Civil Rights CommissionSit-in demonstrationsTHE SPACE RACECASTRO IN CUBATHE ELECTION OF JOHN KENNEDYRock and Roll Living: 1961-1979KENNEDY: PROGRESS AND THE COLD WARThe Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile crisisThe Peace CorpsThe Space RaceKennedy in BerlinTRADE AGREEMENTSTHE UNITED STATES AS WORLD COPEarly involvement in VietnamTHE SUPREME COURT OF THE 1960SKennedy's peacemaking initiativeTHE ASSASSINATION OF JFKTHE HEIGHT OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENTSeparation versus integrationMartin Luther King's legacyLYNDON B. JOHNSON (LBJ)Legislating for the Great SocietyWomen's liberationMedicare, Medicaid, and the 24th AmendmentTHE VIETNAM WARHard fighting in VietnamWar protestsThe Tet offensiveRICHARD NIXONThe established order versus the countercultureThe expansion of the war into CambodiaChina and the SALT talksNixon's social programsPulling out of VietnamWatergateGERALD FORDJIMMY CARTERThe Iranian hostage crisisMounting problemsLeading in the Modern World: 1980-The PresentRONALD REAGAN AND REAGANOMICSNew Conservative ideasReaganomicsA growing trade deficitCOMMUNISM FADESThe U.S. flexes its military musclesMikhail GorbachevIran-Contra and other problemsGEORGE H.W. BUSHThe fall of the Soviet UnionOperation Desert StormLegislation under the elder BushMODERN DEMOCRACY WITH BILL CLINTONThe new rainbow AmericaBattling extremismReforming welfarePolitics of the possiblePersonal politicsGEORGE W. BUSHTexas governor to U.S. PresidentIncreasing economic problemsHealth care and children: Hot-button issuesClimate changeHurricane KatrinaThe terrorist attacks on 9/11THE 21ST CENTURYBusiness changes with societyA continuing trend: The rich get richer, the poor get poorerLife in the USAShifting demographicsInto the futureReview of Key Trends, Events, and Supreme Court CasesKey Events in U.S. History-1675: SETTING UP THE COLONIES-1775: BUILDING THE COLONIESREVOLUTION-1800: THE CONSTITUTION-1840: DEMOCRACY AND MANIFEST DESTINY-1860: THE LONG PREQUEL TO THE CIVIL WAR-1865: CIVIL WAR-1900: THE UNITED STATES GROWS UP-1945: U.S. AS WORLD POWERTO NOW: GUARDIAN OF THE PEOPLEKey Issues in U.S. HistoryU.S. DIVERSITYTHE AMERICAN IDENTITYAMERICAN CULTUREDEMOGRAPHICSECONOMICSWOMEN'S RIGHTSRACIAL EQUALITYREFORMU.S. RELATIONS WITH THE WORLDSPIRITUALITYKey Supreme Court DecisionsMARBURY V. MADISON (1803)MCCULLOCH V. MARYLAND (1819)GIBBONS V. OGDEN (1824)DRED SCOTT V. SANDFORD (1857)PLESSY V. FERGUSON (1896)WEST COAST HOTEL CO. V. PARRISH (1937)BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION (1954)MAPP V. OHIO (1962)GIDEON V. WAINWRIGHT (1963)GRISWOLD V. CONNECTICUT (1965)MIRANDA V. ARIZONA (1966)ROE V. WADE (1973)UNITED STATES V. NIXON (1974)
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