Respect involves valuing the dignity and worth of patients, staff, and members of the public involved in projects. Respect can include:

? General respect, including respecting individual, cultural, and role differences; respecting people’s knowledge, insight, experience, and expertise; avoiding practices that might be seen as unfair or prejudiced; and being willing to explain the bases for their ethical decision-making

  • ? Privacy and confidentiality, including keeping appropriate records; avoiding inadvertent disclosure of confidential information and obtaining consent for any planned disclosure; ensuring participants are aware of when information may be passed back to other parties including families and healthcare professionals; ensuring permissions are granted for any audio, video, or photographic recordings and only using these in ways approved by participants; and reporting breaches of confidentiality
  • ? Informed consent, including ensuring participants understand what the intervention involves; recording and storing consents appropriately; identifying participants who may not be able to provide informed consent and working with carers or relatives to ensure activities are carried out in the participant’s best interests; and withholding information about an intervention or intentionally deceiving participants only when it is essential for the preservation of participant welfare, the efficacy of professional services, or the integrity of evaluation or research activities (see Chapter 11 for more on deception in research studies)
  • ? Self-determination, including supporting participants to make their own decisions about involvement; ensuring participants know they have the right to withdraw; and supporting participants who do withdraw, such as destroying personal records unless permission has been granted for these to be maintained
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