Terrestrial ecosystem research infrastructures : challenges and opportunities

Section I Ecosystem Research Infrastructures. The Need to Address Global Change and Associated ChallengesIntegrated Experimental Research Infrastructures: A Paradigm Shift to Face an Uncertain World and Innovate for Societal BenefitIntroductionPredictive Ecology as a Core Premise for an Integrated Distributed Experimental InfrastructurePrototyping Integration of Experimental PlatformsIntegrated e-Infrastructure for Efficient Data-Centric KnowledgeAcquisition and DataflowInformaticsData Transformation, Analytics, and ModelingInnovation Capacity, New Market Opportunities, and Strengthen Competitiveness through Distributed Experimental InfrastructureFuture Directions in Working InternationallyReferencesNational Ecological Observatory Network: Beginnings, Programmatic and Scientific Challenges, and Ecological ForecastingScientific and Programmatic BeginningsSocietal ImperativesHypotheses to RequirementsUnrealized Benefits of RequirementsThe Need and Philosophy of Ecological ForecastingFirst ChallengeSecond ChallengeThird ChallengeFourth ChallengeFifth ChallengeFuture ExpectationsReferencesField Phenotyping: Concepts and Examples to Quantify Dynamic Plant Traits across Scales in the FieldIntroductionConcept of Field Phenotyping: From Traits to Sensors and Positioning SystemsRelevant Traits Define Sensors for Field PrototypingMeasuring Root TraitsMeasuring Structural TraitsMeasuring Water Relations TraitsMeasuring Photosynthesis TraitsSensor Positioning Systems: A Compromise between Temporal and Spatial ResolutionGround-Based SystemsUAVs and Unmanned AircraftsAirplanes and Satellites for Field PhenotypingThe Need for Environmental MonitoringConclusions and Outlook: The Future of Field PhenotypingAcknowledgmentsSection II A New Generation of Controlled Environment, Field, and Modeling Platforms Advancing Understanding of Hydrological and Biogeochemical Interactions in Evolving Landscapes through Controlled Experimentation at the Landscape Evolution ObservatoryIntroductionLandscape Evolution Observatory: Description and ScopeThe Landscape Evolution ObservatoryIntegrated and Spatially Discrete Measurements of Hydrological State and Flux VariablesIntegrated and Spatially Discrete Measurements of Carbon Cycling, Weathering, Photosynthesis, and RespirationIntegrated and Spatially Discrete Measurements of Land-Surface Energy ExchangeRemote Sensing of Mass and Energy FluxesFast, Real-Time Isotope Measurement of Water and CarbonSolution Collection and AnalysisElectrical Resistivity TomographyDetection and Monitoring of Microbial ActivityResearch Foci to Advance Understanding of Interacting Hydrological and Biogeochemical ProcessesFlow and Transport Studies at Landscape ScalesCoupled Hydrological and Geochemical Process EvolutionMicrobiological and Biogeochemical Evolution of LandscapeConclusionsAcknowledgmentsQuantifying Relationships between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function with ExperimentsWhy Study Biodiversity-Ecosystem Functioning Relationships?How to Study BEF Relationships in Real Ecosystems?The Basic Design of BEF Experiments and Their Development over TimeThe Future of BEF Platforms: Challenges for a New Generation of ExperimentsReferencesFrontiers of Ecosystem Modeling and Large-Scale ExperimentsIntroductionExperiment-Model Integration: Needs,Experiment-Model Integration with Data from Global Change Experiments and Observational NetworksExperiment-Model Integration: A Case Study with the SPRUCE ProjectInfrastructure Challenges in the SPRUCE ExperimentInforming Models Using the SPRUCE ExperimentToward an Interactive Experiment-Model ApproachExperiment-Model Integration: A Case Study with EDGE ProjectCoordinated Experiments across Space in the EDGE ProjectIntegrating Experimental Findings and Process-Based ModelsChallenges and Strategies to Promote Integrated Experiment-Model ApproachesData Set DevelopmentDevelopment of High-Fidelity Emulators and Traceability AnalysisInfrastructure DevelopmentCommunications between Experimentalists and ModelersConclusionsReferencesSection III New Tools to Meet New Challenges. Emerging Technologies for Exploring Unknown Ecosystem ProcessesLarge-Scale Sequence-Based Information: Novel Understanding of Ecology and Novel Avenues to Test Ecological HypothesesUse of Sequence Data in Ecology: An OverviewMass Sequencing: Current and Upcoming TechnologiesDiversity, Molecular Barcoding, and New ProspectsMolecular Barcoding of Plants and AnimalsMicroorganisms and Molecular "Barcoding"Meta-Omics to Assess the Different Dimensions of DiversityMetagenomicsMetatranscriptomicsMulti-OmicsSingle-Cell GenomicsLinking Diversity to FunctionsFutureSequencing Technologies: Read Length MattersMetaviromesSequencing the EpigenomeModeling: Toward "Systems Ecology"?GlossaryReferencesCharacterization of Biogeochemical Processes at the Microscale: Concepts and Applications of NanoSIMSIntroductionSIMS Principle, Technical Requirements, and LimitationsApplication in BiogeochemistryMain Achievements in Soil Science Thanks to NanoSIMS AnalysesCharacterization of Microbial CommunitiesBiogeochemical Functioning of Soil Primary Particles and MicroaggregatesSummary and OutlookGlossaryReferencesClimate Warming Experiments: Selecting the Appropriate TechniqueIntroductionPassive Warming MethodsOpen-Top ChambersThermal ScreensTranslocationGeothermal Hot SpotsActive Warming MethodsSoil Heating CablesClimate-Controlled ChambersInfrared Heating SystemsConclusionsReferencesRemote Sensing in the Reflective Spectrum: A Powerful and Applied Technology for Terrestrial Ecosystem ScienceIntroductionInstrumentation and PlatformsLandsat ProgramSPOT ProgramThe NOAA-AVHRR ProgramVEGETATION ProgramMODIS ProgramSentinel-2 ProgramHigh-Spatial-Resolution SatellitesCommercial SatellitesVENpS ProgramHyperspectral InstrumentsSpectral IndicesBroadband Vegetation IndicesNarrowband Vegetation IndicesThe Red-EdgeBiological Pigments (Chlorophylls, Carotenoids, and Anthocyanins)Nutrients (Nitrogen, Potassium, and Phosphorus)Broadband Vegetation Water IndicesNarrowband Vegetation Water Stress IndicesBroadband Abiotic and Other IndicesAlbedoSoil Organic Matter (Lignin, Cellulose, and Protein)Spectral Analysis MethodsMultivariate AnalysisMultitemporal Data ProcessingPhenological StudiesMultisource Data FusionIncorporating Ecological Variables with Remote SensingSummaryReferencesA Blueprint for a Distributed Terrestrial Ecosystem Research InfrastructureIntroductionChallenges in Terrestrial Ecosystem ResearchImplementation and DesignComplementary Earth ObservationScalingTERENO Observatory Network in GermanyConclusionReferencesSection IV Data Management and Access Computational Challenges in Global Environmental Research InfrastructuresIntroductionCharacterising Research InfrastructuresRequirements for Interoperable Data ServicesCuration, Cataloguing and ProvenanceProcessing and OptimisationIdentification, Discovery and CitationBuilding Interoperable Computational Infrastructures for ResearchReference ModellingSemantic LinkingDeploying New Services on e-InfrastructureConclusionsReferencesKOS: Next-Generation Online Data and Information Infrastructure for the Ecological Science CommunityIntroductionPublishing Ecological Data to Support Intelligible ReuseMaking Heterogeneous Ecological Data ReuseableChallenges Associated with PublicationThe ЖКОБ Approach to Support the Intelligible Reuse of Ecological DataSolving the Business and Information ChallengesOpting for a Centralized ServiceImplementing Dynamic InfrastructureKnowledge Transfer ToolsInformation ModelData EnrichmentData RepresentationThe fiKOS FIXER Language (Instruction, Transform and Enrichment)Facilitating Reuse via the Data PortalDiscovery: Data, Metadata and MethodsAssessment of ReproducibilitySummary and Next StepsReferencesComprehensive and Coordinated Approach of GEOSS to Ecosystem ChallengesIntroductionGEO ViewMountain EcosystemsArid Ecosystems (Including Semiarid)Coastal/Marine EcosystemsThe European H2020 ECOPOTENTIAL ProjectGEOSS Information System across Scientific DomainsGEOSS Information System CommunityNew GEOSS Information System Strategic Goals and Implementation PlanGEOSS Interoperability Needs and Implementation ApproachBrokering ApproachThe GEOSS Common InfrastructureThe GEOSS Web PortalThe DABTheCSRGCI Contribution to the GEOSS Information SystemGEOSS Information System and the Big Data ChallengesConclusionsGlossaryReferencesAdvancing the Software Systems of Environmental Knowledge InfrastructuresIntroductionCase StudiesAtmospheric New Particle FormationPlant Disease OutbreaksApproachesChallengesOpportunitiesConclusionReferencesSection V Infrastructure Integration and Perspectives Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network: A Network of Networks Approach to Building and Maintaining Continental Ecosystem Research InfrastructuresThe Need for Large-Scale Scientific Infrastructure in Ecology and Ecosystem ScienceDesigning Research InfrastructureCreation of TERNBenefits of the TERN Approach to Research InfrastructureChallenges of the TERN Infrastructure ApproachDisconnected Community and CultureChronic UnderinvestmentShort Funding CyclesNo Clarity for Ongoing Operational CostsReliance on Partner Institution GoodwillNo Direct Reporting Responsibilities for SubcontractsOverly Ambitious ScopeAbility to Distribute Funds for Strategic PrioritiesGovernancePolitics of ScienceSkillsConclusion: A Test of the Network of Networks Approach (the U ber Network)ReferencesCommunity-Driven Efforts for Joint Development of Environmental Research InfrastructuresIntroductionChallenges in the Earth SystemEnvironmental Research InfrastructuresEnvironmental Research Infrastructure Development in EuropeESFRI RoadmapCommon Challenges in the European Research Infrastructure FieldThe Beginnings of CollaborationENVRI Project (2011-2014)COOPEUS (2012-2015)Strategy of the European Environmental Research InfrastructuresVision of ERIS DocumentActions and SuggestionsTechnological CapitalHuman CapitalCultural CapitalCurrent Activities (as of 2016)ENVRIplus (2015-2019)ENVRIplus ThemesParticipation ConceptExpected ImpactCOOP+ (2016-2018)Conclusions and OutlookReferencesSynthesis Centres: Their Relevance to and Importance in the AnthropoceneIntroductionAnalysis and Synthesis CentresFunction of Analysis and Synthesis CentresPioneering Tools for Data Management and Open ScienceReferencesRole of Long-Term Experiments in Understanding Ecosystem Response to Global ChangeIntroductionDefinition of Long-Term Ecological SitesAttributes of Enduring Long-Term Ecological SitesNew DirectionsConclusionReferencesIntegrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS): An Infrastructure to Monitor the European Greenhouse Gas BalanceIntroduction: Identify the ChallengesICOS Structure: New Perspectives of Decentralized Research InfrastructureEcosystem NetworkEcosystem StationsEcosystem Thematic CenterAtmospheric NetworkAtmospheric StationsAtmospheric Thematic CenterOcean NetworkOcean StationsOcean Thematic CenterCentral Analytical LaboratoriesCarbon PortalHead OfficeChallenges, Solutions, and Lessons LearnedCross-Domain DimensionNetwork DesignAgreement on Standards and MethodsLegal and Financial StructureReferences
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