In this chapter we have established that the “fan” concept is multifaceted, and that there are different ways of approaching the study of fans and fan cultures. There are both similarities and differences in how brand fans and more “traditional” fans behave, but it is also interesting to note how differently these types of fans are approached by brands and media producers.
The terminology used in marketing and business literature is often vague and paradoxical, overlooking the aspects of resistance that are often integral to many fandoms. At the same time, businesses in their quest for a larger market share want fans, not customers, and brand advocates, not followers. But, with the popular image of the media geek in mind, why do they want fans? The most straightforward explanation is that their take on the fan concept is very selective, and rather one-dimensional, and very likely shaped by the “Facebook vocabulary.”
Althusser, Lois. 2014 . On the Reproduction of Capitalism: Ideological State and Ideological State Apparatuses. London: Verso Books.
Anderson, Chris. 2006. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More. New York: Hyperion.
Barton, Kristin M. 2014. Introduction. In Fan CULTure: Essays on Participatory Fandom in the 21st Century, ed. Kristin M. Barton, and Jonathan Malcolm Lampley, 5—8. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
Baudrilliard, Jean. 1998. The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. London:
Baym, Nancy K. 2000. Tune in, Log on: Soaps, Fandom and Online Community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Blanchard, Ken, and Sheldon Bowles. 2011. Raving Fans: A Revolutionary Approach to Customer Service. London: Harper Collins Entertainment.
Booth, Paul. 2015. Fans’ list-making: Memory, influence, and argument in the “event” of fandom. IMATRIZes 9(2): 85—107.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 2010 . Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge.
Chatfield, Tom. 2016. The invisible ways Facebook is affecting our choices. BBC, May 23. http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20160523-the-invisible- ways-facebook-is-affecting-our-choices
Cochran, Tanya R. 2008. The Browncoats are Coming! Firefly, Serenity, and Fan Activism. In Investigating Firefly and Serenity: Science Fiction on the Frontier, ed. Rhonda Wilcox, and Tanya R. Cochran. London: I.B. Tauris.
Coppa, Francesca. 2014. Fuck yeah, fandom is beautiful. Journal of Fandom Studies 2(1): 73-82.
Couldry, Nick. 2003. Media Rituals: A Critical Approach. Abingdon: Routledge.
Debord, Guy. 1995 . The Society of the Spectacle. New York: Zone Books.
Dill, Kathryn. 2016. Disney tops global ranking of the most powerful brands in 2016. Forbes, February 18. http://www.forbes.com/sites/kathryn-
dill/20 16/02 /18/disney-tops-global-ranking-of-the-most- powerful-brands-in-2016/# 1 ca818437181
Duffett, Mark. 2013. Understanding Fandom: An Introduction to the Study of Media Fan Culture. New York: Bloomsbury.
Economist, The. 2016. Less than ecstatic: The lights are going out all over Europe. The Economist, January 9. http://www.economist.com/news/ europe/21685519-lights-are-going-out-night-clubs-all-over-europe-less-- ecstatic
Fiske, John. 1992. The Cultural Economy of Fandom. In The Adoring Audience: Fan CultureandPopularMedia, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 30—49. London: Routledge.
Foucault, Michel. 2002 . The Archaeology of Knowledge. London: Routledge.
Fuchs, Christian. 2014. Social Media: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage.
Fuggetta, Rob. 2012. Brand Advocates: Turning Enthusiastic Customers into a Powerful Marketing Force. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Garlen, Jennifer C. 2014. Block Party: A Look at Adult Fans of LEGO. In Fan CULTure: Essays on Participatory Fandom in the 21st Century, ed. Kristin M. Barton, and Jonathan Malcolm Lampley, 119—130. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
Gibson, Sean. 2016. Liverpool owners FSG brag about “transforming fans into customers” on website. The Telegraph, February 4. http://www.telegraph. co.uk/football/2016/02/08/liverpool-owners-fsg-brag-about-transforming- fans-into-customers/
Gilmore, James H., and B. Joseph Pine II. 2007. Authenticity: What Consumers Really Want. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Giroux, Henry A. 2005. The terror of neoliberalism: Rethinking the significance of cultural politics. College Literature 32(1): 1—19. doi:10.1353/lit.2005.0006.
Gottfried, Jeffrey, and Elisa Shearer. 2016. News use across social media platforms 2016. Pew Research Center, May 26. http://www.journalism. org/2016/05/26/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2016/
Gray, Jonathan, Cornel Sandvoss, and C. Lee Harrington (ed). 2007. Fandom: Identities and Communities in a Mediated World. New York: New York University Press.
Grossberg, Lawrence. 1992. Is There a Fan in the House?: The Affective Sensibility of Fandom. In The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 50—68. London: Routledge.
Guerrier, James. 2015. This isn’t your parents’ fandom. Viacom International Insights, March 31. http://internationalinsights.viacom.com/post/115140819087/
Habermas, Jurgen. 1989 . The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hellekson, Karen, and Kristina Busse (ed). 2006. Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet: New Essays. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Herman, Edward S., and Noam Chomsky. 1988. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon Books.
Hill, Vernon. 2012. Fans not Customers: How to Create Growth Companies in a No Growth World. London: Profile.
Hills, Matt. 2002. Fan Cultures. London: Routledge.
-. 2014. From Dalek Half Balls to Daft Punk Helmets: Mimetic Fandom
and the Crafting of Replicas. In Material Fan Culture, ed. by Bob Rehak. Special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 16. doi: 10.3983/ twc.2014.0531.
Horkheimer, Max, and Theodor W. Adorno. 2002 . Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Hornby, Nick. 1995. High Fidelity. New York: Riverhead Books.
Human League, The. 1982. Mirror Man [7” single]. VS552. Virgin Records.
Jenkins, Henry. 1992. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture. New York: Routledge.
-. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide.
New York: New York University Press.
-. 2007. Afterword: The Future of Fandom. In Fandom: Identities and
Communities in a Mediated World, ed. Jonathan Gray, Cornel Sandvoss and C. Lee Harrington. New York: New York University Press.
-. 2008. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide: Updated
and with a New Afterword. New York: New York University Press.
-. 2014. Where fandom studies came from: An interview with Kristina
Busse and Karen Hellekson (Part 1). Confessions of an Aca-Fan: The Official Weblog of Henry Jenkins, November 17. http://henryjenkins.org/2014/11/ where-fandom-studies-came-from-an-interview-with-kristina-busse-and-- karen-hellekson-part-one.html
Jenkins, Henry, Mizuko Ito, and danah boyd. 2016. Participatory Culture in a Networked Era: A Conversation on Youth, Learning, Commerce, and Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Kozinets, Robert V. 2014. Fan Creep: Why Brands Suddenly Need “Fans”. In Wired TV: Post-Network Television’s Virtual Worlds, ed. Denise Mann, 161-175. New York: Rutgers University Press.
Kuper, Simon, and Stefan Szymanski. 2014. Soccernomics: Why England Loses, Why Germany and Brazil Win, and Why the U.S., Japan, Australia, Turkey and
Even India Are Destined to Become the Kings of the World’s Most Popular Sport. New York: Nation Books.
Levy, Pierre. 1997. Collective Intelligence: Mankind’s Emerging World in Cyberspace. New York: Plenum Press.
Looking for Eric. 2009. Directed by Ken Loach. London: Sixteen Films.
Marwick, Alice E. 2013. Status Update: Celebrity, Publicity and Branding in the Social Media Age. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
McCracken, Grant. 2005. Culture and Consumption II: Markets, Meaning and Brand Management. Bloomington, IL: Indiana University Press.
Merrifield, Andy. 2005. Guy Debord. London: Reaktion Books.
Okrent, Arika. 2014. The listicle as literary form. The University of Chicago Magazine, January—February. http://mag.uchicago.edu/arts-humanities/
Pine, B. Joseph II, and James H. Gilmore. 1998. Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review 76(4): 97—105.
Polhemus, Ted. 1997. In the Supermarket of Style. In The Clubcultures Reader: Readings in Popular Cultural Studies, ed. Steve Redhead, Derek Wynne, and Justin O’Connor, 148-151. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Richey, Sharon. 2015. For brand success, consumers must fall in love. The Guardian [Marketing Agencies Association partner zone], July 29. http:// www.theguardian.com/media-network/marketing-agencies-association- partner-zone/2015/jul/29/brand-success-consumers-love-agencies
Roberts, Kevin. 2004. Lovemarks: The Future Beyond Brands. New York: Power House Books.
Rosenbaum-Elliott, Richard, Larry Percy, and Simon Pervan. 2015. Strategic Brand Management, 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sandvoss, Cornel. 2005. Fans: The Mirror of Consumption. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Sansweet, Stephen J. 2014. Foreword. In Fan CULTure: Essays on Participatory Fandom in the 21st Century, ed. Kristin M. Barton, and Jonathan Malcolm Lampley, 1-4. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
Scott, Suzanne. 2013. Fangirls in Refrigerators: The Politics of (In)visibility in Comic Book Culture. In Appropriating, Interpreting, and Transforming Comic Books, ed. Matthew J. Costello. Special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 13. doi:10.3983/twc.2013.0460.
Strage, Fredrik. 2005. Fans. Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.
Taggart, Eve Marie. 2008. Fans: The Mirror of Consumption, by Cornel Sandvoss [book review]. Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 1. doi:10.3983/ twc.2008.039.
Tan, Monica. 2016. Lego: Refusing to sell bricks to Chinese artist Ai Weiwei was a mistake. The Guardian, April 28. https://www.theguardian.com/ artanddesign/2016/apr/28/lego-sell-bricks-chinese-artist-ai-weiwei-mistake This is Anfield. 2016. Liverpool owners change “transforming fans into customers” tagline. This is Anfield, February 4. http://www.thisisanfield.com/2016/02/ liverpool-owners-change-transforming-fans-into-customers-tagline/
Waskul, Dennis D., and Phillip Vannini. 2016. Introduction: Popular Culture as Everyday Life. In Popular Culture as Everyday Life, ed. Dennis D. Waskul, and Phillip Vannini. New York: Routledge.
We Bought a Zoo. 2011. Directed by Cameron Crowe. Beverly Hills, CA: 20th Century Fox.
Zuberance. n.d. Zuberance: Advocate Marketing Experts. http://zuberance.com/ Zwaan, Koos, Linda Duits, and Stijn Belinders. 2014. Introduction. In The Ashgate research companion to fan cultures, ed. Linda Duits, Koos Zwaan, and Stijn Belinders. Farnham: Ashgate.