Process or manifold?

In McTaggart’s influential analysis of time [McTaggart, 1908], A-Series propositions are tensed, meaning they have a relative temporal label, such as yesterday, whilst B-Series propositions are untensed, meaning they have an absolute temporal label, such as a date.

Presentism is the view that only the moment of the now exists, time is not an object but a process, and only A-Series propositions are fundamental. This is the process time perspective.

Images of Time. First Edition. George Jaroszkiewicz.

© George Jaroszkiewicz 2016. Published in 2016 by Oxford University Press.

On the other hand, if we believe in the manifold time perspective, we are prepared to believe in an observer-independent objective time structure, possibly intermingled with an objective physical space in the form of spacetime. This was Minkowski’s view of relativistic spacetime [Petkov, 2012]. In the manifold time perspective, sometimes referred to as the Block Universe [Price, 1997], A-Series propositions are secondary and illusionary: only B-Series propositions are meaningful.

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