A further example of milk production according to milk specific properties, in this case the milking management, is the intriguing case of the naturally melatonin-enriched milk, obtained from the exclusive milking of night milk, as dark stimulates melatonin secretion into plasma and milk (Valtonen et al., 2003; Peukhuri et al., 2012). First produced in 1999 in Finland by a small company, the Ingman Dairy, as Night Time fluid milk (Mellentin, 2003), the product was transformed by Gnann (2006), which patented a method to at least double the natural milk melatonin content with the use of appropriate light regime. Melatonin content was further increased by low temperature under vacuum drying (www.nacht-milchkristalle.de). Synlait (2015) produces in New Zealand high-melatonin powdered milk.
The examples made in this chapter suggest that milk production can be addressed to different targets and that this perspective is not a future trend, but exists at the present time. In this perspective, milk composition should be observed as both a whole food able to give high-value traditional products (fluid milk, fermented milk, and cheeses) or a base for cracking its components to create functional ingredients.