Milk Preparation for Further Processing into Dairy Products
Angelo V. Zambrini1 and Germano Mucchetti2
- 1 Department of Quality, Innovation, Safety, Environment, Granarolo S.p.A., Bologna, Italy
- 2 Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti e del Farmaco, Parco Area delle Scienze, Parma, Italy
The Rationale for Milk Preparation
Milk is a complex organic fluid whose composition and produced quantity vary according to five factors:
- 1) Physiology (stage of lactation, number of lactations, etc.)
- 2) Nutrition (feed quantity and quality, energy, fiber, and nitrogen intake)
- 3) Weather (season, temperature, relative humidity, etc.)
- 4) Genetics (race, individual, etc.)
- 5) Zootechnics (milking type and method, incidence of udder pathologies, etc.).
Milk of individual cows may present either daily (between milking acts) or every- other-day fluctuations, mostly in quantity and in fat content.
This variability is very important for the dairy technologist, since not all the milk delivered to the dairy may show the same attitude to be converted into the expected products. In such cases, it is advisable to select milk deliveries according to their characteristics and use destinations.
However, this variability in composition, though flattened by mixing milk from several farms, can negatively impact—mostly in small dairies—the adopted process parameters forcing the dairy technologist to make some modifications in order to guarantee the obtention of finished products with regular composition and organoleptic characteristics. Thus, there is a need for preliminary process operations that can be classified in the category “milk preparation for further conversion in milk products"
The natural perimeter of these preliminary operations may be set from milk reception to the beginning of the unit operation peculiar to each dairy product (e.g., final heat treatment for pasteurized or UHT milk, fermentation for yogurt, clotting for cheese).
Advances in Dairy Products, First Edition.
Edited by Francesco Conto, Matteo A. Del Nobile, Michele Faccia, Angelo V. Zambrini, and Amalia Conte. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published 2018 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.