Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea

About 4 billion diarrhea episodes occur each year, accounting for almost 4% of all deaths. Environmental hygiene, good practice in food storage and handling, and availability of clean, potable water are key in the prevention of diarrhea.

The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea are well studied, and several meta-analyses are available detailing the evidences of their efficacy.

Acute diarrhea contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Recently, priobiotics have been proposed as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. The evaluation of clinical evidence in the treatment of more than 1800 children support the efficacy of probiotic therapy in the setting of acute diarrhea in children, L. rhamnosus and S. boulardii being more effective than L. acidophilus and L .reuteri (Kun Lee et al., 2009).

AAD (Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea)

AAD is a common complication of antibiotic treatment, since antibiotics may disrupt the normal microbiota, often causing its appearance usually 2 to 8 weeks after treatment. Some specific probiotics may reduce the risk of AAD, supporting a return to the status of eubiosis. The clinical trials conducted suggest that most of the probiotics can significantly reduce the incidence of AAD with varied efficacy (Kun Lee et al., 2009).

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