- 1) Blanching: a mild heat treatment used to inactivate the oxidative enzymes in fruits and vegetables, and given prior to further processing (canning, freezing, dehydration) (Hosahalli and Ramaswamy, 2006).
- 2) Pulsed electric fields (PEF): a nonthermal method of food preservation that uses short pulses of electricity for microbial inactivation. Application of pulsed electric fields of high intensity and duration from microseconds to milliseconds may cause temporary or permanent permeabilization of cell membranes. With the use of electric fields, PEF technology enables inactivation of vegetative cells of bacteria and yeasts in various foods. As bacterial spores are resistant to pulsed electric fields, applications of this technology mainly focus on foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, especially for acidic food products.
- 3) Freeze concentration: The removal of pure water in the form of ice crystals at subzero temperatures.
Advances in Dairy Products, First Edition.
Edited by Francesco Conto, Matteo A. Del Nobile, Michele Faccia, Angelo V. Zambrini, and Amalia Conte. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published 2018 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.