Certified colors are synthetically produced (or human made). There are nine certified color additives approved for use in food (21 CFR 74, Subpart A):
- 1. FD&C Blue No. 1 in EU Brilliant Blue FCF
- 2. FD&C Blue No. 2 in EU Indigotine (E132)
- 3. FD&C Green No. 3 in EU Fast Green FCF
- 4. Orange B with restriction of use for coloring the in EU Erythrosine casings or surfaces of frankfurters and sausages; the (E127) quantity of the color additive does not exceed 150
parts per million by weight of the finished food
5. Citrus Red No. 2 with restriction of use only for in EU, not permitted coloring the skins of oranges that are not intended
or used for processing
- 6. FD&C Red No. 3 in EU, not permitted
- 7. FD&C Red No. 40 in EU, Allura Red AC
- 8. FD&C Yellow No. 5 in EU, Tartrazine
- 9. FD&C Yellow No. 6 in EU, Sunset Yellow
Amaranth is banned for use in food in United States. It is permitted in Europe with E number 123: a Statement of EFSA on October 2014 defined ADI 0.15 mg/kg body weight per day as not carcinogenic.
Also Vegetable carbon (Carbon Black—E153) is banned in the United States when produced by certain processes because of the possible presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It is permitted in Europe. EFSA's recent 2012 review of the safety of carbon black, when used as a food coloring substance, concluded that at the reported use levels vegetable carbon (E 153) containing less than 1.0 pg/kg of residual carcinogenic PAHs expressed as benzo[a]pyrene is not of safety concern.