Hydrolysis of Phospholipids
Phospholipase can be used to improve some functional properties, such as foaming, emulsification, and heat-stability, of liquid milk and whey products. The surface properties are dramatically changed by hydrolysis of phospholipids: the lysophospholipids released from the fat globule membrane decreases the surface tension of skim milk and whey, increases the heat stability ofwhey proteins, and makes more heat stable emulsions (Lilbsk et al., 2007).
Lactase for the Production of Oligosaccharides
Oligosaccharides from lactose are receiving increasing attention thanks to the interest of consumers for prebiotic foods. Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are recognized as prebiotic compounds since they are indigestible, stimulate colonic fermentation to short-chain fatty acids, and increase the abundance of intestinal bifidobacteria. They are synthesized from lactose by microbial p-galactosidases: p-Galactosidase catalyses both hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions. Lactose acts as galactosyl-donor as well as galactosyl-acceptor to convert lactose to indigestible oligosaccharides. Continuous ultrafiltration membrane reactor are applied for GOS production from whey as a substrate (Foda & Lopez-Leiva 2000).