As well as various measures, antioxidants are utilized to prevent of oxidative rancidity, improve oxidation stability of lipids, and extend the shelf life of foods especially oxygen-sensitive foods (Vermeiren et al., 1999; Uquncu, 2011). Although incorporating synthetic or natural antioxidants into product formulations inhibits oxidative reactions and preserves food quality and nutrition, it may also adversely affect food quality attributes such as taste, color, and viscosity (Mastromatteo et al., 2010; Lopez de
Dicastillo et al., 2013; Tian et al., 2013). But in antioxidant packaging, antioxidant substances can be incorporated into food packaging system.
Both primary and secondary antioxidants can be used in antioxidant packaging to preserve the food quality. Although synthetic antioxidant agents (butylated hydroxy- anisole, butylated hydroxytoluen, EDTA, tert-butylhydroquinone) can be used in antioxidant packaging technology, application of natural antioxidant agents (tocopherol, plant extracts, ascorbic acid, EOs) (Madsen, and Bertelsen, 1995; Granda- Restrepo, 2009b; Tian et al., 2013; Gomez-Estaca et al., 2014) has been a trend in recent years. Antioxidant agents can be applied into the packaging systems in different forms of sachet, labels containing the agent separately from the food product, or can be incorporated into the packaging film. Milk and dairy products are susceptible to oxidation because of fat content and especially light oxidation because of the presence of photosenitizer vitamins, and the literature addresses several examples of antioxidant packaging materials in various dairy products. Soto-Cantu et al. (2008) studied the release of butylated hydroxytoluen (BHT) from coextruded films of LDPE to Asadero cheese (white and semi-hard cheese of Mexican origin) and its efficacy on oxidation and odor stability. They maintained the oxidation odor during 100 days of storage period. Since high fat content (26% to 40%) of whole milk powder (WMP) is a major cause of deterioration due to lipid oxidation during processing and storage (Alvarez and Pascall, 2011), antioxidant packaging can also be used in WMP packaging.
Granda-Restrepo et al., (2009a) studied the release of antioxidants from the multilayer co-extruded films of HDPE (high-density polyethylene) (added with titanium dioxide)/EVOH/LDPE containing the antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (1.5%), butylated hydroxytoluene (1.5%) and a-tocopherol (4%) to WMP during 30 days at 30°C and the oxidation stability of WMP. They determined that a-tocopherol showed a more gradual release compared to BHT and BHA, whereas they migrated quickly from the films to the WMP and the film added with a-tocopherol contributed the most to increase the oxidative stability of WMP by protecting Vitamin A degradation.
The same researchers also studied the effect of storage temperature on the migration of a-tocopherol at 20°C, 30°C, and 40°C from the same packaging material to WMP (Granda-Restrepo et al., 2009b), whereas they found that the temperatures of 30°C and 40°C are more effective since the rate of oxidative reactions was higher at these temperatures than at 20°C. Perazzo et al. (2014) studied the antioxidant action of cassava-starch bio-based film incorporated with green tea extract and oil palm colorant for packaging of butter under accelerated oxidation storage conditions of 64% of relative humidity at 30±2°C. These bioactive films provided oxidation stability of butter, and the authors suggested using these antioxidants in low concentrations because high concentrations of the colorant and green tea extract can act as pro-oxidant agents. In another study related to active packaging of butter, nanocomposite and bio-based packaging materials produced with starch and glycerol, reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals and activated with alcoholic extract of red propolis, were studied to determine the antioxidant efficacy of the films. As a result, it was found that these bioactive and biobased nanocomposite films can be used to reduce the oxidation of butter during storage of 60 days, whereas the storage temperature was not expressed (Costa et al. 2014).