The Zeithaml Model
Between the means-end approaches, Zeithaml proposed a model in 1988 obtained by combining the results of an exploratory study, carried out through focus groups and in-depth interviews to companies and consumers, with the results of past research (Figure 22.214.171.124).
The model is an adaptation of another model originally proposed by Dodds & Monroe in 1985 and is based on the concepts of perceived price, perceived quality, and perceived value, where perceived quality is a second-order phenomenon, an abstract attribute. The model, shown in Figure 126.96.36.199, defines and relates price, perceived quality, and perceived value, and gathers results from past research on those concepts. The model, which is proposed for all types of products, can clearly be applied to food products. In the model, perceived quality, a higher-level attribute, is an overall judgment based on perceptions of extrinsic and intrinsic attributes. Perceived price influences both the perceived quality and the perceived sacrifice. Zeithaml (1988) further explains that in the means-end chains, value, like perceived quality, is proposed to be a higher-level abstraction but differs from quality in two ways. First, value is more individualistic and personal and second, value involves a trade-off of “give” and “get” components, that is the difference between the value of benefits conferred by the product and the “cost” of acquiring them. Extrinsic attributes serve as value signals and can substitute for active weighing of benefits and cost. Finally, the perception of value depends on the frame of reference in which the consumer is making an evaluation, and the perceived value affects the relationship between quality and purchase.