Adapted Models Based on Expectancy-Value Theory

The models included in this group can be considered as alternatives of the theory of rational choice, designed to correct some of the discussed shortcomings. These include various complexity structures built on the concept of expectancy value of consumer behavior (Gutman, 1982; Fishbein, 1983; Reynolds and Gutman, 1988; Gutman, 1997; Nielsen et al.,

1998; Zanoli and Naspetti, 2002; Jackson, 2005; Solomon et al., 2006). This section will draw attention to two known models widely used for describing and predicting consumer behavior in the choice of foods—theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior.

Theory of Reasoned Action

The theory of reasoned action (TRA) was developed by M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen in the 1970s as a general theory of social behavior (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980; Gorton and Barjolle, 2013). It is based on the construct expectancy

Theory of reasoned action (TRA). Source

Figure Theory of reasoned action (TRA). Source: Ajzen and Fishbein (1980). Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.

value—that is, the behavior of individuals is in accordance with their beliefs about the outcomes and the values that they place on these outcomes (Figure

According to the model, the beliefs about the outcomes and outcomes evaluation lead to attitudes to certain behavior that, in turn, have a major influence on the intention of people to act in a certain direction. The “intention of action” in the model of Fishbein and Ajzen's is the immediate antecedent and a key factor for certain behavior. The authors of TRA introduce a second factor of influence on the intention to act the so- called person's subjective norm. They represent the beliefs of the individual for what other people important to them think about the specific behavior. Thus, TRA recognizes the social impact on personal behavior by including personal subjective norms in the model (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980).

The theory of reasoned action is widely used in studying and predicting consumer behavior in purchasing by taking into account the variations in the four groups of elements of behavior: (1) the target (brand or product); (2) the action (purchasing, use, lending, etc.); (3) the context (own use, gift, etc.); and (4) the time horizon (now, next week, next year, etc.) (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980).

A number of studies that apply TRA in the choice of foods reveal significant correlations between the main components of the model (Saunders and Rahilly, 1990; McCarthy et al., (2003); Gorton and Barjolle, 2013).

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