Theory of Planned Behavior
Theory of reasoned action is able to explain variations between attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions only in situations where people have volitional control on their actions (Jackson, 2005; Solomon et al., 2006; Gorton and Barjolle, 2013). To avoid this limitation, TRA has been expanded as the theory of planned behavior (TPB), specifically for situations where actions are not under volitional control (Ajzen and Madden, 1986; Ajzen, 1988; Ajzen, 1991) (Figure 22.214.171.124). The structure of the model includes a new variable—the so-called perceived behavioral control as an additional indicator both of the intent and of consumer behavior. This variable describes internal control
Figure 126.96.36.199 Theory of planned behavior (TPB). Source: Ajzen (1991). Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.
factors (e.g., information, skills, and abilities) and external factors of control (dependence on other, situational factors) (Gorton and Barjolle, 2013).
The theory of planned behavior is used in studying consumer behavior in different contexts. The review of C. Armitage and M. Conner of TPB applications (Armitage and Conner, 2001) identifies 154 different fields, including choice of foods.
Using the TPB as a theoretical framework for studying consumer choice leads to the confirmation of the main links in the model for different types of food— conventional foods; health-related fat consumption; organic foods, and so on (Nguyen et al., 1996; Cox et al., 1998; Povey et al., 2000; Conner and Armitage, 2006; Gorton and Barjolle, 2013).
In other studies, additional variables in the model are identify, such as self-identity and perceived need, which have different and independent effects on the intention of choice of foods (Conner and Armitage, 1999; Conner and Armitage, 2006; Gorton and Barjolle, 2013).