Probiotic Dairy Products

An important category of functional foods is probiotic dairy products, which contain microorganisms beneficial for health when consumed, and are among one of the most rapidly growing and innovative dairy sectors. Dairy-based products account for approximately 43% of the functional beverage market (in five major European markets, USA, Japan and Australia) and are mainly comprised of fermented products (Ozer and Kirmaci, 2010). The yogurt and fermented milks market is currently worth €46 billion, with North America, Europe, and Asia accounting for 77% of the market. Especially yogurt-style products are the most popular functional beverages, with kefir in Western Europe and North America and ymer in Denmark being good examples

(Marsh et al., 2014). Emerging food applications include probiotic cheese and ice creams, nutrition bars, breakfast cereal, infant formula, and many others (Cruz et al., 2009; Granato et al., 2010).

Fruit and milk mixture can deliver the antioxidant capacity of fruit constituents in combination with the health benefits of milk, as in the study of Wegrzyn et al. (2008), which examined the stability of skim milk fortified with apple polyphenols. Milk-based beverages are demonstrating to be interesting vehicles for bioactive food ingredients, and mixing with fruit elements represent an additional convenience value that meets consumer needs. Adapting to new trends and consumer demands is one of the main objectives of fruit juice producers. Current developments in new ready-to-drink beverages are based on drinks containing combinations of dairy and fruit juices with added bioactive components, as an orange juice-milk beverage rich in carotenoid and vitamin A studied by Zulueta et al. (2010). As also presented in the study of Cakmakci et al. (2014), the yogurt supplemented with 15% carrot juice and sugar was the best formulation for sugary yogurt for all chemical and sensory data, providing an interesting amount of p-carotene and a natural color to the product. Dairy beverages formulated with cheese whey have become more popular in the global dairy market and well accepted by consumers of different age groups. The results obtained by da Silveira et al. (2015) suggest that goat cheese whey and the combination of inulin with oligofructose may be used as functional ingredients in formulating a probiotic chocolate goat dairy beverage to maintain sufficient probiotic viability and improve its viscosity and sensory features. Addition of probiotics in ice creams made with different mix of cow and vegetable milks may turn to interesting new dairy products (Aboulfazli et al.,2015) . It resulted that fermented ice creams made with vegetable milks have the potential to be used as new functional food in dairy industry because they provide customized techno-functionality such as the enhancement in viscosity, emulsification and melting resistance with minimal change to the taste and also improve health-related and nutritional aspects. Cheese is also a good alternative to delivery probiotics into the intestine and, as a result, has been the subject of various marketing and research studies in recent years (Cruz et al., 2009).

Probiotic bacteria have been incorporated into different types of cheese such as fresh cheese, fresh cream cheese supplemented with inulin, Crescenza, cottage, soft cheese, Petit Suisse cheese, Argentinean fresco, Kariesh cheese, Cremoso, Mascarpone cheese, Gouda, Pategras cheese, probiotic goat's cheese, Festivo cheese, Canestrato Pugliese hard cheese, Tallaga cheese, cheddar, cheddarlike cheese, Iranian white- brined cheese, Turkish white cheese, white-brined cheese, Kasar cheese, white cheese), Turkish Beyaz cheese, and cheese-based dips (Karimi et al., 2012). In conclusion, the main aspect suggested by these studies is that incorporation of probiotic bacteria should not affect the expected sensory characteristics (flavor, texture, and appearance) of conventional (nonprobiotic) cheeses. Consumers are not willing to eat functional foods if added ingredients negatively influence the flavors, even if they could be beneficial for their health. Furthermore, prebiotics, including fructooligo- saccharides, inulin, and galactooligosaccharides, are often added commercially to fermented milks to promote the growth of favourable bacteria (Huebner et al., 2007), while investigations of other prebiotics such as oligofructose and polydextrose have also yielded positive results (Oliveira et al., 2009). In addition to preventing and treating intestinal-associated diseases, the incorporation of bioactive nutraceuticals such as Ю-3 fatty acids, isoflavones, and phytosterols in fermented milks also have potential applications (Awaisheh et al., 2005). A variety of vitamins and minerals may be added, including vitamins D, E, and C, calcium and magnesium, while fortification of fermented milks with iron was shown to improve the growth of preschool children (Silva et al., 2008).

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