• 1 Yoko Ono’s Morning Beams for the City of London was part of the City of London Festival, 26 June—15 July 2006, sited in the North Transept of St Paul’s Cathedral.
  • 2 Witnessed by the author during a three-week period of observation in the cathedral.
  • 3 Throughout the period of the installation, the mound of joy grew at a much faster rate than the mound of sorrow. It had a unified quality, the stones gathered and growing together. The mound of sorrow, by contrast, seemed composed of disparate elements, of individual stones, deliberately placed far apart from each other. One felt somehow that joy is shared, but sorrow is experienced singly, in isolation. Even so, joy and sorrow need not be seen as mutually exclusive, as Jane Dillenberger points out in one of her many key texts on modern Christian art. She underscores the close affinity ofjoy and sorrow in the work of artists as different as Manessier and Rouault (1986: 226). The latter in particular had remarked on an underlying seam ofjoy running through, yet often obfuscated by, the tragic themes he depicted, an indication of his fundamental belief in the power of redemption within the harsh realities of life.
  • 4 Private conversation.
  • 5 Conference, Theology, Liturgy and the Arts, Sarum College, Salisbury, 2009.
  • 6 Mennekes has at times spoken of the deliberate policy taken at St Peter’s to reduce to a bare minimum its optical distractions so that the images and objects that remain retain a focused sacral presence. He sees this as a kenotic method of clearing integral to the creation of a sacred space.
  • 7 Although this commission ultimately collapsed, Plensa’s Together was fabricated for the 56th Venice Biennale in 2015, appearing in the church of San Giorgio Maggiore.
  • 8 Film available for viewing at
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