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Integrated History and Philosophy of Science: Problems, Perspectives, and Case Studies

I Integrated History and Philosophy of Science. Contributions from the 5th ConferenceMetaphysics and the Unity of Science: Two Hundred Years of ControversyMetaphysicsThe Unity of ScienceThe Dyadic TraditionA Defense of the Dyadic TraditionWindelbandWindelband: Laws vs. Unique ParticularsWindelband: Abstraction vs. PerceptualityWindelband: ValuesWindelband: Human Indeterminacy and FreedomA DilemmaBibliographySaving Models from Phenomena: A Cautionary Tale from Membrane and Cell BiologyIntroductionModels, Theory, and Evidence: The View from the Life SciencesThe Case of Membrane Models in Cell BiologyEpistemological Strategies and Technological Conditions of Evidentiary SuccessTheoretical Commitments as Guide and ConstraintReferencesMy Touchstone Puzzles. W.D. Hamilton’s Work on Social Wasps in the 1960sIntroductionInclusive Fitness Theory and the Haplodiploidy HypothesisThe PuzzleBrazilian WaspsPolygyny and PoliandryGrappling with a PuzzleObservations and Attempts to ExperimentationDoubts and Adjustments to the ModelConclusionsBibliographyThe First Century of Cell Theory: From Structural Units to Complex Living SystemsThe Standard StoryWriting a New History Around 1950Putting the Life in CellsCell TheoryFertilizationCells from Other CellsCytoplasm and NucleusCell LineageCell-Cell InteractionsRegen erationCell CultureConclusionReferencesTheorizing the Distinction Between Solids, Liquids and Air: Pressure from Stevin to PascalCommon Distinctions Between Solids, Liquids and AirStevin’s HydrostaticsLimitations of Attempts by Galileo and Descartes to Characterise LiquidsUnderstanding Air as Distinct from Liquids and Solids in the Wake of TorricelliPascal’s Moves Towards a Technical Concept of PressureBeyond Pascal to Boyle’s Concept of Pressure in Liquids“Beyond the Conventional Boundaries of Physics”: On Relating Ernst Mach’s Philosophy to His Teaching and Research in the 1870s and 1880sBeyond the Conventional Boundaries of PhysicsMach’s Early CareerMach’s Anti-metaphysicsMass and MechanicsMach’s Philosophy: Sensation, Matter, SoulReferencesScientific Inference and the Earth’s Interior: Dorothy Wrinch and Harold Jeffreys at CambridgeIntroductionDorothy Wrinch and Harold Jeffreys: Biographical SketchesThe Wrinch-Jeffreys PapersWrinch and Jeffreys on Russell’s Epistemology of ScienceWrinch and Jeffreys on a Probabilistic Epistemology of ScienceConclusionReferencesValues, Facts and Methodologies. A Case Study in Philosophy of EconomicsIntroductionThe Socialist Calculation Debate and Its Background: The MethodenstreitThe Methodenstreit RestartedEconomics as an a priori ScienceMises’ Argument Against Marketless SocialismMises’ Characterization of His OppositionNeurath’s Opposition to Mises’ ArgumentA Different Anti-socialist Calculation ArgumentConclusionReferencesExtended Evolution and the History of KnowledgeIntroductionCultural EvolutionThe History of Knowledge as a Case of Extended EvolutionFrom Biological to Cultural EvolutionThe Evolution of LanguageThe Neolithic RevolutionThe Evolution of Writing SystemsThe Dynamics of Cultural EvolutionOutlookReferencesII General PartCarnap’s Weltanschauung and the Jugendbewegung: The Story of an Omitted ChapterIntroductionThe Jugendbewegung and Its Effect on Carnap’s WeltanschauungThe “Intimate” Parts of the BiographyBibliography
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