Research-to-Operations/Applications (R2O/R2A) and Operations-to-Research (O2R) Arcs
As shown in Figure 11.3, observations related to the evolution of agricultural or meteorological drought can be represented by a number of different indicators. As many of these indicators represent different temporal signatures of developing droughts or different physical responses to drought, an urgent need exists for the education of users, and such stakeholder engagement with the drought, agriculture, and water resources communities would have as a benefit the verification of these indicators. Such efforts are being undertaken by the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS). One NIDIS study shows that greater benefits can be realized for indicators based on E0 and ET (e.g., EDDI and ESI) where assessments of the users' awareness of such products generally scores low, even for users in agricultural regions (McNie 2014). For these products to become widely accepted, the integration of ET-based monitoring and forecast products into operational decision support systems should be undertaken with robust, well-developed training programs based on educating stakeholders on how to use new ET-based drought indicators.